Berbers of Morocco



ETHNONYMS: "Imazighen" (sing. Amazigh) since 1980 has come to refer to all North African Berbers, whereas distinct names refer to regional subgroups, almost all territorially discontinuous from each other: Irifiyen (sing. Arifi) refers to the Rifians of northeastern Morocco; Imazighen, again and in its original meaning, to the Berbers of central and southeast-central Morocco; Ishilhayen (sing. Ashilhay), to the Shluh or Swasa (sing. Susi) of southwestern Morocco; Iqba'iliyen (sing. Aqba'ili), to the Kabyles of the Algerian Jurjura; Ishawiyen (sing. Ashawi), to the Shawiya of the Algerian Aurès; Imzabiyen (sing. Amzabi), to the oasis dwellers of the Algerian Mzab; and Imajeghen (sing. Amajegh), to the Ahaggar Tuareg of the southern Algerian Sahara, with similar names for other Tuareg groups in Mali and Niger. In this article, only the three Moroccan regional subgroups will be discussed.


Bibliography

Bourdieu, Pierre (1962). The Algerians. Translated by Alan C. M. Ross. Boston: Beacon Press.


Bousquet, Georges-Henri (1961). Les berbères. Que Sais-Je? no. 718. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France. Originally published in 1957.


Chiapuris, John (1979). The Ait Ayash of the High Moulouya Plain: Rural Social Organization in Morocco. University of Michigan Museum of Anthropology, Anthropological Papers, no. 69. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.


Gellner, Ernest (1969). Saints of the Atlas. London: Weidenfeld & Nicholson.


Gellner, Ernest, and Charles Micaud, eds. (1973). Arabs and Berbers: From Tribe to Nation in North Africa. London: Duckworth.


Hart, David M. (1976). The Aith Waryaghar of the Moroccan Rif: An Ethnography and History. Viking Fund Publications in Anthropology, no. 55. Tucson: University of Arizona Press.


Hart, David M. (1981). Dadda 'Atta and His Forty Grandsons: The Socio-Political Organisation of the Ait Atta of Southern Morocco. Wisbech, Cambridgeshire: MENAS Press.

Hart, David M. (1984a). The Ait 'Atta of Southern Morocco: Daily Life and Recent History. Wisbech, Cambridgeshire: MENAS Press.


Hart, David M. (1984b). "Segmentary Systems and the Role of 'Five Fifths' in Tribal Morocco." In Islam in Tribal Societies: From the Atlas to the Indus, edited by Akbar S. Ahmed and David M. Hart, 66-105. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul. Originally published in 1967.


Hart, David M. (1989). "Rejoinder to Henry Munson, Jr.: 'On the Irrelevance of the Segmentary Model in the Moroccan Rif.' " American Anthropologist 91:765-769.


Hart, David M. (1992). "Tradicion, continuidad y modernidad en el derecho consuetudinario islamico: Ejemplos del marruecos bereber y de las agencias tribales pujtunes de Pakistan." In Amazigh-Tamazight: Debate Abierto, edited by Vicente Moga Romero, 133-150. Aldaba, no. 19. Melilla: Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia (UNED).


Hart, David M. (1993). "Four Centuries of History on the Hoof: The Northwest Passage of Berber Sheep Transhumants across the Moroccan Atlas, 1550-1912." Morocco: Journal of the Society for Moroccan Studies 3:21-55.


Hart, David M. (1994). "Conflits extérieurs et vendettas dans le Djurdjura algérien et le Rif marocain." Awal: Cahiers d'Études Berbères 11:95-122.


Hart, David M. (1995). Traditional Society and the Feud in the Moroccan Rif. Wisbech, Cambridgeshire: MENAS Press; Rabat: Faculté des Lettres et des Sciences Humaines, Université Mohammed V. In press.


Hart, David M., ed. and trans. (1975). Emilio Blanco Izaga: Colonel in the Rif. 2 vols. Ethnography Series, HRAFlex Books, MX3-001. New Haven: Human Relations Area Files.


Kraus, Wolfgang (1991). Die Ayt Hdiddu: Wirtschaft und Gesellschaft im zentralen Hohen Atlas. Oesterreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Philosophisch-Historische Klasse, Sitzungsberichte, 574. Band, Veroeffentlichungen der ethnologischen Kommission, Bd. 7. Vienna: Verlag der oesterreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften.


Montagne, Robert (1930). Les berbères et le Makhzen dans le sud du Maroc: Essai sur la transformation politique des Berbères sedentaires (groupe Chleuh). Paris: Félix Alcan.


Montagne, Robert (1973). The Berbers: Their Social and Political Organisation. Translated by David Seddon. London: Frank Cass. Originally published in French in 1931.


Murdock, George Peter (1960). Social Structure. New York: Macmillan. Originally published in 1949.


Neumann, Wolfgang (1987). Die Berber: Vielfalt und Einheit einer alten nordafrikanischen Kultur. Cologne: DuMont Verlag. Originally published in 1983.

Raha Ahmed, Rachid, ed. (1994). Imazighen del Magreb entre Occidente y Oriente: Introduccion a los bereberes. Granada: Copisteria La Gioconda.


Royaume du Maroc, Ministère de l'Économie Nationale, Division de la Coordination Économique et du Plan (1962). Population rurale du Maroc: Recensement démographique (juin 1960). Rabat: Service Central des Statistiques.


Vinogradov, Amal Rassam (1974). The Ait Ndhir of Morocco: A Study of the Social Transformation of a Berber Tribe. University of Michigan Museum of Anthropology, Anthropological Papers, no. 55. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.


Waterbury, John (1972). North for the Trade: The Life and Times of a Berber Merchant. Berkeley, Los Angeles, and London: University of California Press.

DAVID M. HART

User Contributions:

Comment about this article, ask questions, or add new information about this topic:

CAPTCHA