Eritrea






Culture Name

Eritrean

Orientation

Identification. The term "eritrea" derives from Sinus Erythraeus, the name Greek tradesmen of the third century B.C.E. gave to the body of water between the Arabian Peninsula and the Africa continent (now known as the Red Sea). Later, during the Roman Empire, the Romans called it Mare Erythraeum, literary meaning "the red sea." When Italy colonized a strip of land along the Red Sea in 1890, they gave it the name Eritrea.

Since the creation of Eritrea was so closely linked to Ethiopia, Eritrea's identity developed in struggles against its ancient and larger neighbor to the south. Many of the nine ethnic groups within Eritrea are also found in Ethiopia, and the dominant Christian Orthodox highland culture of Ethiopia also stretches into the Eritrean highland plateau. Historically, there has been a division in Eritrea between the Christian highlands, which are culturally and linguistically homogenous, and the predominantly Muslim lowlands, which are culturally and linguistically heterogeneous. Eritrea's long war of liberation, however, managed to bridge some of the traditional differences between the highland and lowland populations.

Location and Geography. Located in northeastern Africa, Eritrea has about 620 miles (1,000 kilometers) of coastline along the west coast of the Red Sea. To the north and northwest, the country borders the Sudan, to the south, Ethiopia, and to the southwest, Djibouti. Eritrean territory covers about 48,000 square miles (125,000 square kilometers) and contains a wide variety of rugged landscapes: mountains, desert, highland plateau, lowland plains, and off the coast some 150 coral islands. The topographical variety has affected the social organization and mode of production of the country's nine ethnic groups. In the highland plateau, people live in small villages conducting subsistence plow-agriculture. Many of the lowland groups, however, lead semi-nomadic pastoral or agro pastoral lives. The Eritrean capital, Asmara, is located in the highland plateau, the home region of the biggest ethnic group, the Tigrinya.

Demography. The population in Eritrea is approximately three to three-and-a-half million (1994), divided between nine ethnic groups. The highland Tigrinya group constitutes about half of the population. More than 75 percent of the population lives in rural areas.

Linguistic Affiliation. Although the Eritrean Constitution states that all nine ethnic languages in the country are equal, the government of Eritrea has two administrative languages: Tigrinya and Arabic. Tigrinya is a Semitic language also spoken by the Tigreans of Ethiopia. Arabic was chosen to represent the lowland Muslim groups in the country. Nevertheless, only one ethnic group, the Rashaida, has Arabic as a mother tongue, whereas the other groups use it as a religious language. Many of the groups are bilingual, and because of the legacy of Ethiopian domination over Eritrea, many Eritreans also speak Amharic, the Ethiopian administrative language. Eritrean pupils are today taught in their mother tongue in primary levels (one through five), and English takes over to be the language of instruction from sixth grade (at least in theory). English is taught as a second language from second grade. It appears, however, that Tigrinya is taking over as the dominant language, since the majority of the population are Tigrinya-speakers, the biggest towns are located in the highlands, and most people in government and the state bureaucracy are from the Tigrinya ethnic group.

Symbolism. Since Eritreans fought a thirty-year-long war of liberation (1961–1991) to achieve independence from Ethiopian domination, the national

Eritrea
Eritrea
culture endorsed by the government invokes symbols of war and sacrifice. The three main national holidays all commemorate the war of liberation: 24 May, Liberation Day; 20 June, Martyr's Day; and 1 September, a holiday that commemorates the start of the liberation war. The official Eritrean flag, adopted in 1993, is a combination of the flag of the Eritrean People's Liberation Front, the liberation movement that achieved a military victory over the Ethiopian government, and the old flag given to Eritrea by United Nations in 1952.

History and Ethnic Relations

Emergence of the Nation. The Eritrean-Ethiopian region has been exposed to population movements and migrations from northern Africa, across the Red Sea, and from the south. On the border between Eritrea and Ethiopia, one also finds traces of some of Africa's oldest civilizations. The Axumite empire, which emerges into the light of history in the first century C.E. , comprised the Akkele-Guzai region of highland Eritrea and the Agame region of Tigray, Ethiopia. The empire expanded and its port city of Adulis, south of present-day Massawa, became an important trading post hosting ships from Egypt, Greece, the Arab world, and other far-off areas. In the early fourth century Enzana, the king of Axum, converted to Christianity. He thus established Christianity as the religion of the court and state, making the Ethiopian/Eritrean Christian Church one of the oldest in the world. The decline of the Axumite empire began around 800, when its area of dominance became too big to administer efficiently. Moreover, local resistance and uprisings coupled with the domination of overseas trade by the Islamic empire in the Middle East led to the collapse of the kingdom. Ethiopia was subsequently constructed on the legacy of Axum.

The Italian colonization of Eritrea in 1890 marked the first time that Eritrean territory was ruled as a single entity. Under Italian colonial administration, infrastructure was developed, and a modern administrative state structure was established. The development of the Eritrean colonial state helped to create a distinction between Eritreans as subjects of the Italian crown and their ethnic brothers in Ethiopia. The notion that Eritrea was more developed and modern than Tigray and the rest of Ethiopia helped to boost Eritrean national consciousness.

Italy—which had occupied Ethiopia in 1935— saw its dream of an East African empire crushed in World War II. British forces liberated Ethiopia from the Italian colonizers and took control of Eritrea in 1941. Eritrea was administered by the British Military Administration until 1952, when the United Nations (UN) federated Eritrea with Ethiopia. Ethiopia soon violated the federal arrangement, however, and in 1962 Ethiopia annexed Eritrea as its fourteenth province. The year before the annexation, the Eritrean armed resistance against Ethiopian rule commenced. It would take thirty years of liberation war before the Eritrean People's Liberation Front managed to oust Ethiopian forces from Eritrean soil, one of the longest wars of liberation in Africa. In 1993 the Eritrean people voted overwhelmingly in favor of independence in a UN-monitored referendum.

National Identity. Eritrea's long struggle for self-determination and independence has created a feeling of nationhood based on a common destiny. The armed struggle was initiated by the Eritrean Liberation Front (ELF) in 1961, but in 1970 an ELF splinter group formed a new organization that later took the name Eritrean People's Liberation Front (EPLF). During periods of the 1970s, a fierce civil war raged between the ELF and the EPLF. In 1981, the EPLF, with the help of the Tigrean People's Liberation Front in Ethiopia, managed to crush the ELF as a military organization. From then on, the EPLF deliberately used its military struggle and its internal policy of social revolution—which included land reform, gender consciousness, and class equality—to achieve a national cohesion. The EPLF recruited fighters from all the country's ethnic groups. The fighters and the civilian population in the liberated areas were educated in Eritrean history and the EPLF ideology of a strong territorial nationalism.

Following the vote for independence in 1993, the EPLF took power in Asmara and continued their centrally-driven nationalistic policies. For instance, eighteen months of national service became compulsory for all men and women between the ages of eighteen and fifty-five. Moreover, new multiethnic regions ( zoba ) were established in 1997, abolishing the old ethnicity-based regions ( awraja ). The strongest force of Eritrean nationalism after independence derives from the border wars Eritrea fought against Yemen, Djibouti, Sudan, and Ethiopia. The conflict with Ethiopia, which erupted in 1998, escalated into a full-scale war that claimed tens of thousands of casualties. During this war, the majority of the able-bodied population of Eritrea had to serve in the national military forces. A peace treaty with Ethiopia was negotiated by the U.N. and Organization of African Unity (OAU) and signed 12 December 2000.

At the turn of the millennium, mounting criticism and resistance, most notably from lowland groups and intellectuals, against the monopolistic role of EPLF was coming to the fore and splitting the unitary, nationalistic impression of an all-embracing Eritrean identity. Much of the criticism reflected the view that the EPLF was a monopolistic, Tigrinya-dominated front that was subduing the interests and cultures of the minority groups.

Ethnic Relations. The highland Tigrinya ethnic group is the dominant group, numerically, politically, and economically. There is also a minority group of Tigrinya-speaking Muslims called Jeberti in the highlands. The Jeberti, however, are not recognized as a separate ethnic group by the Eritrean government. The lowland groups—the Afar, Beja/Hadarab, Bileyn, Kunama, Nara, Rashaida, Saho, and Tigre—are all, with the exception of the Tigre, relatively small and, taken together, they do not form any homogenous cultural or political blocs. Traditionally, the relationship between the highland and lowland groups has been one of tension and conflict. Raids on livestock and encroachment on land and grazing rights have led to mutual distrust, which is still, to a certain degree, relevant in the relation between the minorities and the state. Many of the groups are also divided between Eritrea and Ethiopia, Sudan, and Djibouti, making cross-border ethnic alliances a possible threat to the national identity.

An Eritrean woman harvesting Teff in Geshinashim. The Eritrean economy is totally dependent on agriculture.
An Eritrean woman harvesting Teff in Geshinashim. The Eritrean economy is totally dependent on agriculture.

Urbanism, Architecture, and the Use of Space

The architecture of Eritrean towns reflects the nation's colonial past and the shifting influence of foreign powers. The Italian population in the country called Asmara "Little Rome." The city boasts wide avenues, cafés and pastries, and a host of Italian restaurants. The port of Massawa, on the other hand, is influenced by the Ottoman period, the Egyptian presence, and the long tradition of trade with far-off countries and ports. In the countryside, traditional building customs are still upheld. In the highlands, small stone houses ( hidmo ) with roofs made of branches and rocks dominate. The house is separated into two areas, a kitchen section in the back and a public room in the front that is also used as sleeping quarters. The various lowland groups employ several housing styles, from tentlike structures ( agnet ) among the pastoral nomadic groups, to more permanent straw or stone/mud huts among the sedentary groups.

Food and Economy

Food in Daily Life. Eritrean cuisine is a reflection of the country's history. The injerra is commonly eaten in the rural areas. It is a pancake-like bread that is eaten together with a sauce called tsebhi or wat . The sauce may be of a hot and spicy meat variety, or vegetable based. In the urban centers one finds the strong influence of Italian cuisine, and pasta is served in all restaurants. The lowland groups have a different food tradition than the highlands with the staple food being a porridge ( asida in Arabic) made of sorghum.

Food Customs at Ceremonial Occasions. Both Islam and the Orthodox Christian tradition require rigorous observance of fasts and food taboos. Several periods of fasting, the longest being Lent among the Orthodox and Ramadan among Muslims, have to be adhered to by all adults. During religious celebrations, however, food and beverages are served in plenty. Usually an ox, sheep, or goat is slaughtered. The meat and the intestines are served together with the injerra. Traditional beer ( siwa )is brewed in the villages and is always served during ceremonial occasions.

Basic Economy. The Eritrean economy is totally dependent upon agricultural production. Over 75 percent of the population lives in the rural areas and conducts subsistence agricultural production, whereas 20 percent is estimated to be traders and workers. No major goods are produced for export, but some livestock is exported to the Arabian peninsula.

Land Tenure and Property. The granting of equal land right use to all citizens, irrespective of sex, ethnicity, or social class, has been a political priority for the EPLF since the days of the armed struggle. After independence, the Eritrean government passed a new land proclamation abolishing all traditional land tenure arrangements, and granting the ownership of all land to the Eritrean state exclusively. Accordingly, each citizen above the age of eighteen has the right to receive long-term usufruct rights in land in the place he or she resides. The Eritrean government has not yet fully implemented the new land proclamation, and land is still administered under traditional communal tenure forms. Land scarcity is widespread in Eritrea, particularly in the densely populated highland plateau. Thus, any reform touching upon the sensitive issue of access to land necessarily creates controversies.

Commercial Activities. Agricultural production and petty trade make up the bulk of the commercial activity in Eritrea. The informal economy is significant, since petty traders dominate the many marketplaces throughout Eritrea, where secondhand clothing, various equipment, and utensils are sold.

Major Industries. The marginal industrial base in Eritrea provides the domestic market with textiles, shoes, food products, beverages, and building materials. If stable and peaceful development occurs, Eritrea might be able to create a considerable tourism industry based on the Dahlak islands in the Red Sea.

Trade. Eritrea has limited export-oriented industry, with livestock and salt being the main export goods.

Division of Labor. In urban areas, positions are filled on the basis of education and experience. Key positions in civil service and government, however, are usually given to loyal veteran liberation fighters and party members.

A large share of trade and commercial activity is run by individuals from the Jeberti group (Muslim highlanders). They were traditionally denied land rights, and had thus developed trading as a niche activity.

Social Stratification

Classes and Castes. Eritrean society is divided along ethnic, religious, and social lines. Traditionally, there were low caste groups within many of the ethnic groups in the country. The last slave was reportedly emancipated by the EPLF in the late 1970s. The traditional elites were the landowning families. After land reforms both during and after the liberation struggle, however, these elites have ceased to exist. Generally, in the rural areas, the people live in scarcity and poverty and few distinctions between rich and poor are seen. In the urban areas, however, a modern elite is emerging, composed of high-ranking civil servants, business-people, and Eritreans returning from the diaspora in the United States and Europe.

Symbols of Social Stratification. In the rural areas, the better-off are able to acquire proper clothing and shoes. The rich may have horses or mules to carry them to the market. A sign of prosperity among the pastoral groups is the display of gold jewelry on women.

Political Life

Government. Eritrea is a unitary state with a parliamentary system. The parliament elects the president, who is head of state and government. The president appoints his or her own cabinet upon the parliament's approval.

No organized opposition to the government party, the People's Front for Democracy and Justice (PFDJ; the re-named EPLF) is allowed in practice. The new constitution, which was ratified in May 1997 but not put fully into effect, guarantees the freedom of organization, but it is too early to say how this will influence the formation of political parties.

Leadership and Political Officials. The president of Eritrea, and the former liberation movement leader, Isaias Afwerki, is the supreme leader of the country. In addition to serving as president, he fills the roles of commander-in-chief of the armed forces and secretary-general of the ruling party, the PFDJ. He is held in high regard among large portions of the population because of his skills as the leader of the liberation movement. Former liberation movement fighters fill almost all positions of trust both within and outside the government.

Social Problems and Control. With the coming to power of the EPLF, strong measures were used to curtail the high rate of criminality in Asmara. At the turn of the millennium, Eritrea probably boasted some of the lowest crime rates on the continent. The people generally pride themselves in being hard working and honest, and elders often clamp down on youths who are disrespectful of social and cultural conventions.

Growing tensions between the lowland minority groups and the Tigrinya—reinforced by the Muslim-Christian divide and Ethiopia's support for Eritrean resistance movements—may threaten the internal stability in the country.

Military Activity. As a result of the 1998–2000 war with Ethiopia, Eritrea was characterized as a militarized society in the early twenty-first century. The majority of the population between the ages of eighteen and fifty-five had been mobilized to the war fronts, and the country's meager funds and resources were being spent on military equipment and defense. Since Eritrea gained independence in 1993, the country has had military border clashes with Yemen, Djibouti, and Sudan, in addition to the war with Ethiopia. This has led to accusations from the neighboring countries that Eritrea exhibits a militaristic foreign policy. There are indications that the Eritrean government uses the military to sustain a high level of nationalism in the country.

Social Welfare and Change Programs

The government of Eritrea is concentrating its development policies on rural agriculture and food self-sufficiency. Few resources are available to social

Women carrying water from a river two hours away from their homes in Adi Baren, Akeleguzay.
Women carrying water from a river two hours away from their homes in Adi Baren, Akeleguzay.
welfare programs. Reconstruction of destroyed properties, resettlement of internally displaced people, and demobilization of the army are huge challenges facing the government. Few national or international nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) are allowed to implement social welfare programs on their own initiative.

Nongovernmental Organizations and Other Associations

The Eritrean government prides itself on its policy of self-reliance, rejecting development aid projects that are not the priority of the government. The majority of international NGOs were expelled from the country in 1998, although all were invited back later due to the humanitarian crisis caused by the war with Ethiopia. The government restricts the development of national NGOs, and foreign aid has to be channelled through governmental organizations.

Gender Roles and Statuses

Division of Labor by Gender. Since subsistence agriculture is the main production activity in Eritrea, the division of labor is influenced by custom. Women's input in agricultural production is vital but certain tasks, such as plowing and sowing, are conducted only by men. Animals are generally herded by young boys, while young girls assist in fetching water and firewood for the household.

The Relative Status of Women and Men. Since Eritrean society is still highly influenced by customary principles, the status of women in many communities is inferior to that of men. The war of liberation, where female fighters served side by side with men, was believed to have changed the status of women. The EPLF culture of gender equality, however, did not penetrate deeply into the Eritrean patriarchal culture. Nevertheless, with the government's policies of modernization and gender awareness, changes are slowly occurring in the status of Eritrean women.

Marriage, Family, and Kinship

Marriage. Customary rules of marriage vary among the ethnic groups. Generally, girls marry at an early age, sometimes as young as fourteen. A large share of the marriages in the rural areas are still arranged by the family groups of concern.

Domestic Unit. Generally, people live together in nuclear families, although in some ethnic groups the family structure is extended. The man is the public decision-maker in the family, whereas the woman is responsible for organizing the domestic activities of the household.

Inheritance. Inheritance rules in Eritrea follow the customary norms of the different ethnic groups. Generally, men are favored over women, and sons inherit their parents' household possessions.

Kin Groups. The nuclear family, although forming the smallest kin unit, is always socially embedded in a wider kin unit. The lineage and/or clan hold an organizing function in terms of social duties and obligations and as a level of identity. With the exception of the Kunama who are matrilineal, all ethnic groups in Eritrea are patrilineal, that is, descent is traced through the male line.

Socialization

Infant Care. In all ethnic groups, children are raised under the strong influence of parents and close relatives, as well as neighbors and the kin group. While conducting domestic chores or working in the fields, mothers usually carry the infants on their backs.

Child Rearing and Education. From an early age, both boys and girls are expected to take part in the household's activities: boys as herders of the family's livestock, girls as assistants to their mother in domestic affairs. An increasing number of children is joining the formal educational system, although education sometimes conflicts with the children's household obligations. In some of the nomadic and seminomadic communities, children might be unable to regularly attend classes in the formal educational system.

In some ethnic groups, circumcision is used as an initiation ritual into adulthood. The majority of both Eritrean men and women are circumcised. Female circumcision, or female genital mutilation, is carried out both among Christians and Muslims, although the type of circumcision differs from clitoridectomy to infibulation (the removal of the labia and partial closing of the vagina by approximating the labia majora in the midline).

Higher Education. The institutions of higher education in Eritrea are few, and the only university, Asmara University, admits a limited number of students. In the rural areas most people take up farming, which does not presuppose any formal education. The better-off families and those with relatives abroad try to send their children to the United States or Europe for further education and work.

Eritrean men have traditionally been considered the family decision-makers.
Eritrean men have traditionally been considered the family decision-makers.

Etiquette

Eritreans pride themselves on being hard working and resilient, and they show great social responsibility. Respect for elders and authority is deeply rooted. Compared to the urban population of Asmara, the peasantry keeps a tighter social discipline in relation to open, public affection between two people of the opposite sex. Boys and men, however, are frequently seen holding hands as a sign of friendship.

All traditional foods are eaten using the right hand only and without the use of silverware. The left hand is considered impure.

Religion

Religious Beliefs. The population is almost equally divided between Christians and Muslims, with the number of Christians being slightly larger. In addition, there are some followers of traditional beliefs among the Kunama group. The Orthodox Christian tradition in Eritrea stretches back to the fourth century, and Orthodox Christianity forms an integral part of the Tigrinya cultural expression. Catholicism and Lutheranism are also represented. Some syncretism with traditional beliefs is found among both Christians and Muslims. The government has been criticized for discriminating against and persecuting the country's Jehovah's Witnesses.

Religious Practitioners. All Eritreans are either Christians or Muslims (except a few followers of traditional religion among the Kunama), thus the religious practitioners are the formalized clergy and ulama, respectively. Since the rural Eritrean community is deeply religious, the clergy and ulama have an influential position in the everyday lives of their followers.

Rituals and Holy Places. Since Christianity and Islam are equally recognized by the state, the main religious holidays of both faiths are observed, including both Christian and Muslim celebrations: Both Western and Ge'ez Christmas, the Epiphany, Id Al-Fetir, Good Friday and Ge'ez Easter, Id Al-Adha, and Mewlid El-Nabi.

Death and the Afterlife. The beliefs and practices concerning death, funerals, and the afterlife follow some of the norms of the two religions—Orthodox (Coptic) Christianity and Islam. Funeral practices, however, may vary among the ethnic subgroups who follow Islam.

Medicine and Health Care

The formal health care system is poorly developed. Poor sanitary conditions in the rural areas and lack of tap water create a high rate of infant mortality. Numerous other health problems, including malaria and HIV/AIDS, lack of food and proper water supplies, and lack of trained personnel, continue to burden Eritrea's development of an efficient health care system. Traditional medical beliefs are widespread in the rural areas.

Secular Celebrations

Upon gaining independence Eritrea changed its calendar from the Julian to the Gregorian. But the reckoning of time according to the Julian calendar exists unofficially and is known as the Ge'ez calendar. The official state holidays are: New Year's Day (1 January); International Women's Day (8 March); May Day (1 May); Liberation Day (24 May); Martyr's Day (20 June); Launching of Armed Struggle (1 September); Ge'ez New Year (11 September; 12 September in leap years); and Meskel (the finding of the true cross) celebrations (27–28 September).

The Arts and Humanities

Because of the protracted war of liberation, the development of arts and humanities has been hindered. Some new artists in postliberation Eritrea are emerging, however, with an artistic focus on the country's struggle for independence.

Support for the Arts. Since the Eritrean society is extremely poor, the government needs to prioritize its funds for development efforts, leaving little for the arts. However, some support is given to cultural shows and exhibits that portray the cultural variety of the Eritrean people. Support is also given to exhibits and shows that display the hardships and sacrifices of the thirty-year war of liberation.

The State of the Physical and Social Sciences

The Eritrean government gives priority to building academic capacity within scientific fields that relate to the reconstruction of the war-torn country. Priority is also given to research into the environment and agricultural production, in order to secure food self-sufficiency.

Bibliography

Connell, Dan. Against All Odds: A Chronicle of the Eritrean Revolution, 1993.

Erlich, Haggai. Ras Alula and the Scramble for Africa: A Political Biography: Ethiopia and Eritrea 1875–1897, 1996.

Gayim, Eyassu. The Eritrean Question: The Conflict between the Right to Self-Determination and the Interests of States, 1993.

Gebremedhin, Tesfa G. Beyond Survival: The Economic Challenges of Agriculture and Development in Post-Independence Eritrea, 1996.

Gottesman, Les. To Fight and Learn: The Praxis and Promise of Literacy in Eritrea's Independence War, 1998.

Iyob, Ruth. The Eritrean Struggle for Independence: Domination, Resistance, Nationalism, 1941–1993, 1995.

Nadel, S. F. "Land Tenure on the Eritrean Plateau." Africa , 16(1): 1–21; 16(2): 109, 1946.

——. Races and Tribes of Eritrea, 1944.

Negash, Tekeste. Italian Colonialism in Eritrea, 1882-1941: Policies, Praxis and Impact, 1987.

——. Eritrea and Ethiopia: The Federal Experience, 1997.

——, and Tronvoll, Kjetil. Brothers at War: Making Sense of the Eritrea/Ethiopia War, 2000.

Pateman, Roy. Eritrea: Even the Stones Are Burning, 1990.

Pool, David Eritrea: Towards Unity in Diversity, 1997.

Tronvoll, Kjetil. Mai Weini: A Highland Village in Eritrea , 1998.

——. "The Process of Nation-Building in Post-War Eritrea: Created from Below or Directed from Above?" The Journal of Modern African Studies, 36(3): 461–482, 1998.

——. "Borders of Violence—Boundaries of Identity: Demarcating the Eritrean Nation-State." Ethnic and Racial Studies, 22(6): 1037–1060, 1999.

United Nations. The United Nations and the Independence of Eritrea, 1996.

—K JETIL T RONVOLL



User Contributions:

haben
Report this comment as inappropriate
Apr 24, 2007 @ 9:21 pm
this was very helpful to me when researching about eritreal. their is a lot of good information about eritreand it's culutre thank you very mych. haben tsegai
Aman
Report this comment as inappropriate
Aug 1, 2007 @ 9:21 pm
well researched and carefully crafted peice of work, well done !!
Yosie Menghisteab
Report this comment as inappropriate
Aug 7, 2007 @ 3:03 am
This was helpful to know(research)Eritrea,and is a very good information about it's cuture and their local life.Thanks very much.Yosief Menghisteab
Samson
Report this comment as inappropriate
Oct 25, 2007 @ 3:15 pm
It is good and well reaserched,It is helpfull to know some about Eritrean culture.Thank you for your good work
Teresa Escarsega
Report this comment as inappropriate
Nov 15, 2007 @ 5:17 pm
This article was excellent for my 4 page comparison paper on two cultures, this being one of them. Thank you, this was an excellent paper for me to extract information. Have a good day
danait
Report this comment as inappropriate
May 13, 2008 @ 7:19 pm
i just wanted to let who ever wrote this now that this teached me a lot about my country that i didn't now. i loved how it went in dept into the history and culture of eritrea. thank you for writing this because eritrea is often forgotten. i came to america as a young girl from eritrea so reading about it makes me remember the beatiful thing about it.

danait
merhawi
Report this comment as inappropriate
May 18, 2008 @ 6:06 am
i was really impressed about the history eventhout it is may country's history.
Raman
Report this comment as inappropriate
Jun 17, 2008 @ 2:02 am
Its a good article on Eritrean culture. It gives lots of insights on Ertirean history and culture.
Daniel
Report this comment as inappropriate
Jul 9, 2008 @ 10:22 pm
God bless it is wonderful I was impressed, really it helps a lot
Thank you for your hard work and continue to find more the more you dig the more you get the clear.
Belu
Report this comment as inappropriate
Jul 15, 2008 @ 3:15 pm
Great work! Very informative and interesting as well. Thanks for the great reaserch.
kenda
Report this comment as inappropriate
Oct 29, 2008 @ 3:15 pm
..... IT IS AN AWSOME WEBSITE FOR PROJECTS I AM NOW DOING ON E AND IT IS GREAT ....

SIKE
fiseha
Report this comment as inappropriate
Dec 16, 2008 @ 4:04 am
it is a nice work,you really have worked hard to extract our culture and history,which was suggested to do it our selves.And specially it is important to the present and next generation to know about our culture and history,becuase we really know few about our history and culture.Keep it up!

from Switherland.
derrick
Report this comment as inappropriate
Dec 26, 2008 @ 12:00 am
Born and raised in the United States of America this was very informative to me. I have numerous Eritrean friends who support the cause for independence, well done.
Ghelatia Araia
Report this comment as inappropriate
Mar 25, 2009 @ 3:15 pm
I love Eritrea so much I love this information. I'm really interested in this information.
Hermela
Report this comment as inappropriate
Apr 8, 2009 @ 7:07 am
heyy i'm from Eritrea and proud 100%

i love my country and it's people.


I LOVE ERITREA
selamawit
Report this comment as inappropriate
Sep 22, 2009 @ 2:14 pm
wow this really is helpful because now it can help me my web site that I am creatinPr
lenzi
Report this comment as inappropriate
Oct 2, 2009 @ 1:13 pm
this and all of your other articles in this website have helped me to further deepen my understanding of these articles!!!!!!!
Gerardo
Report this comment as inappropriate
Jan 4, 2010 @ 8:20 pm
Hello. I need boy names origin Eritrea. Thank you.
Shewit
Report this comment as inappropriate
Jan 16, 2010 @ 12:00 am
Here is some that I can think of right now: Haben (pride), Hiyab(gift), Dawit (David), Hagos (happiness), Zeresenay (the fruits of happiness), Shewit (can be used for both gender. It means young, good and fresh fruits and vegetables), Haileab (God's strength), and Mengsteab (the kingdom of God). Hope this helps.
Alisha!
Report this comment as inappropriate
Jan 28, 2010 @ 6:06 am
Thanks! This helped my research paper! :) I hope I get a good grade on this.
Report this comment as inappropriate
Feb 26, 2010 @ 1:01 am
this research was very helpful and i also got an A+ on my geo project. thanks for who ever wrote this.
rahel gaim
Report this comment as inappropriate
May 9, 2010 @ 7:07 am
Thanks for all it helps me to find my history
I LOVE ERITREA FOR EVER!!
Isaac
Report this comment as inappropriate
Sep 11, 2010 @ 5:05 am
The information is so awesome and may God bless u abundantly for taking time to doing this wonderful job.
Report this comment as inappropriate
Sep 28, 2010 @ 7:07 am
God bless you. You wrote necessary and atractive history of Erietrea,keep itS up.
I love MY LITTELE BEAUTIY ERITEA SHKOR!!
Report this comment as inappropriate
Dec 5, 2010 @ 12:12 pm
This article is well researched and has adequate information. I found it very helpful for my research paper. It touched almost all the subject in Eritrea. Thank you for your great work.
Report this comment as inappropriate
Dec 17, 2010 @ 1:01 am
i rely appreciate this grate job and research.it's helpful and useful to us who are far from our country.keep it up and we support waz all we have.
Report this comment as inappropriate
Dec 17, 2010 @ 5:17 pm
THAT WAS A BEAUTIFUL PIECE OF INFORMATION MEERRY CHRISTMAS
Report this comment as inappropriate
Apr 26, 2011 @ 2:14 pm
hello i am doing a progect on eritrea. this progect is for the school i go and i think i will be helpful. well... i hope so
Report this comment as inappropriate
Jul 27, 2011 @ 1:01 am
I love to come back home. How can I find my way? My mother was born in Eritrea, and she told to marry a girl from where she was born. I want to do that please help me
Brent
Report this comment as inappropriate
Aug 1, 2011 @ 7:19 pm
Does anyone know how to make tibes? I had some at heritage days in Edmonton at the Eritrea pavilion and I loved it. It was spicy beef in a sponge bread.
Report this comment as inappropriate
Oct 14, 2011 @ 11:11 am
WOW! I'm so happy about this research .I really appreciate your considerations and efforts on this work to make known this young and beautiful nation .God bless you .
Report this comment as inappropriate
Nov 17, 2011 @ 5:17 pm
Really fantastic history and help for every person who want to know about Eritrea( littel Roma). Thanks for my heart.
yirgalem berhane
Report this comment as inappropriate
Jan 11, 2012 @ 4:16 pm
I really appreciate this work.It has a significant role to disclose the valuable culture and history of Eritrea. The young generation of Eritrea will be beneficial from this great research.Thanks a lot,am proud of being Eritrean now and for ever!!!
lidia
Report this comment as inappropriate
Feb 21, 2012 @ 7:07 am
this is very helpfull specially to the new generation of Eritrean youth living abroad and who might not know the history of our country ERITREA...Thanks to whoever wrote this, KEEP UP THE GOOD WORK!
Haf2
Report this comment as inappropriate
Feb 27, 2012 @ 5:05 am
It is nice to read the information!!
Add other field of information!!
saron tem
Report this comment as inappropriate
Mar 9, 2012 @ 5:05 am
it was very helpful for my research paper...well done!!
guest
Report this comment as inappropriate
Jul 16, 2012 @ 3:03 am
Althought some of the information is true, it is slightly skewed to suit the Tigrynia chauvinist goverment of Isisa.
KAgiso
Report this comment as inappropriate
Jul 19, 2012 @ 5:05 am
I never knew such a place existed till about 15mins ago in a song...
I'm South African,
Best beilieve im coming to Eritrea.
I wanna know more about the place, Culture and the people in it.

Thanks so much
falen
Report this comment as inappropriate
Aug 29, 2012 @ 5:17 pm
What a great article i did not know that much about Eritrea
it was helpful and very cool i loved it well done!!!
elisa haile
Report this comment as inappropriate
Dec 15, 2012 @ 7:19 pm
i really love how this person gave this info about eritrea born and raised in america i really dont hear a lot when found it it became more clear thank you,and merry chistmas
H Stevens
Report this comment as inappropriate
Feb 27, 2013 @ 2:14 pm
We are foster carers in the UK and have been asked to consider fostering a 15yr old Eritrean boy seeking asylum. This piece has helped enormously and we'll go ahead. Many thanks!
z_truth
Report this comment as inappropriate
Mar 25, 2013 @ 1:13 pm
Just came from there. Beautiful country! Cant wait to go back!
Andreas
Report this comment as inappropriate
Jun 17, 2013 @ 11:11 am
Very helpfully, thank you for your honest hard work.
saidur
Report this comment as inappropriate
Jun 20, 2013 @ 7:07 am
Extremely useful for those who want to know about eritrean socio-cultural milieu and wish to conduct future study on this society.
BASILL
Report this comment as inappropriate
Jul 3, 2013 @ 2:02 am
I like the culture, tradition and proudness of Eritrea, I must say that Eritrea is the country I will visit next summer.

From Denmark.
Report this comment as inappropriate
Nov 13, 2013 @ 3:15 pm
Eritrea is a beautiful country. I've never been there, yet, but I can obviously see by its people that its an extra-ordinary place. I would love to visit and experience their lifestyle one day. The people are beautiful and its definitely a place worth considering.
JO
Report this comment as inappropriate
Dec 22, 2013 @ 10:22 pm
Thanks for the information. It can help me to do my homework in Economics. I like the culture. Very interesting country! Merry Christmas Eritrean!
Amahadari Halefe
Report this comment as inappropriate
Jan 21, 2014 @ 2:14 pm
I am Eritrean and I raised in Eritrea I love Eritrea and Eritrean but I hate the leaders of Eritrea
Report this comment as inappropriate
Jul 16, 2014 @ 1:13 pm
i want thanks for give me this great knowledge for eri

Comment about this article, ask questions, or add new information about this topic:

CAPTCHA


Culture of Eritrea forum