Ethiopia






Culture Name

Ethiopian

Orientation

Identification. The name "Ethiopia" derives from the Greek ethio , meaning "burned" and pia , meaning "face": the land of burned-faced peoples. Aeschylus described Ethiopia as a "land far off, a nation of black men." Homer depicted Ethiopians as pious and favored by the gods. These conceptions of Ethiopia were geographically vague.

In the late nineteenth century, Emperor Menelik II expanded the country's borders to their present configuration. In March 1896, Italian troops attempted to enter Ethiopia forcibly and were routed by Emperor Menelik and his army. The battle of Adwa was the only victory of an African army over a European army during the partitioning of Africa which preserved the country's independence. Ethiopia is the only African country never to have been colonized, although an Italian occupation occurred from 1936 to 1941.

In addition to the monarchy, whose imperial line can be traced to King Solomon and the Queen of Sheba, the Ethiopian Orthodox Church was a major force in that, in combination with the political system, it fostered nationalism with its geographic center in the highlands. The combination of church and state was an indissoluble alliance that controlled the nation from King 'Ēzānā's adoption of Christianity in 333 until the overthrow of Haile Selassie in 1974. A socialist government (the Derge) known for its brutality governed the nation until 1991. The Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF) defeated the Derge, established democratic rule, and currently governs Ethiopia.

The last twenty-five years of the twentieth century have been a time of revolt and political unrest but represent only a small portion of the time during which Ethiopia has been a politically active entity. Unfortunately, however, the country's international standing has declined since the reign of Emperor Selassie, when it was the only African member of the League of Nations and its capital, Addis Ababa, was home to a substantial international community. War, drought, and health problems have left the nation one of the poorest African countries economically, but the people's fierce independence and historical pride account for a people rich in self-determination.

Location and Geography. Ethiopia is the tenth largest country in Africa, covering 439,580 square miles (1,138,512 square kilometers) and is the major constituent of the landmass known as the Horn of Africa. It is bordered on the north and northeast by Eritrea, on the east by Djibouti and Somalia, on the south by Kenya, and on the west and southwest by Sudan.

The central plateau, known as the highlands, is surrounded on three sides by desert with a significantly lower elevation. The plateau is between six thousand and ten thousand feet above sea level, with the highest peak being Ras Deshan, the fourth-tallest mountain in Africa. Addis Ababa is the third-highest capital city in the world.

The Great Rift Valley (known for discoveries of early hominids such as Lucy, whose bones reside in the Ethiopian National Museum) bisects the central plateau. The valley extends southwest through the country and includes the Danakil Depression, a desert containing the lowest dry point on the earth. In the highlands is Lake Tana, the source of the Blue Nile, which supplies the great majority of water to the Nile River Valley in Egypt.

Variation in altitude results in dramatic climatic variation. Some peaks in the Simyen Mountains receive periodic snowfall, while the average temperature of the Danakil is 120 degrees Fahrenheit in the day time. The high central plateau is mild, with a mean average temperature of 62 degrees Fahrenheit.

Ethiopia
Ethiopia

The bulk of the rain in the highlands falls in the major rainy season from mid-June to mid-September, with an average of forty inches of rain during that season. A minor rainy season occurs from February to April. The northeastern provinces of Tigre and Welo are prone to drought, which tends to occur about once every ten years. The remainder of the year is generally dry.

Demography. In the year 2000, the population was approximately 61 million, with over eighty different ethnic groups. The Oromo, Amhara, and Tigreans account for more than 75 percent of the population, or 35 percent, 30 percent, and 10 percent respectively. Smaller ethnic groups include the Somali, Gurage, Afar, Awi, Welamo, Sidamo, and Beja.

The urban population is estimated to be 11 percent of the total population. The rural lowland population is composed of many nomadic and seminomadic peoples. The nomadic peoples seasonally graze livestock, while the seminomadic peoples are subsistence farmers. The rural highlands economy is based on agriculture and livestock raising.

Linguistic Affiliation. There are eighty-six known indigenous languages in Ethiopia: eighty-two spoken and four extinct. The vast majority of the languages spoken in the country can be classified within three families of the Afro-Asiatic super language family: the Semitic, Cushitic, and Omotic. Semitic-language speakers predominantly live in the highlands in the center and north. Cushitic-language speakers live in the highlands and lowlands of the south-central region as well as in the north-central area. Omotic speakers live predominantly in the south. The Nilo-Saharan super language family accounts for about 2 percent of the population, and these languages are spoken near the Sudanese border.

Amharic has been the dominant and official language for the last 150 years as a result of the political power of the Amhara ethnic group. The spread of Amharic has been strongly linked to Ethiopian nationalism. Today, many Oromo write their language, Oromoic, using the Roman alphabet as a political protest against their history of domination by the Amhara, who account for significantly less of the population.

English is the most widely spoken foreign language and the language in which secondary school and university classes are taught. French is heard occasionally in parts of the country near Djibouti, formerly French Somaliland. Italian can be heard on occasion, particularly among the elderly in the Tigre region. Remnants of the Italian occupation during World War II exist in the capital, such as the use of ciao to say "good-bye."

Symbolism. The monarchy, known as the Solomonic dynasty, has been a prominent national symbol. The imperial flag consists of horizontal stripes of green, gold, and red with a lion in the foreground holding a staff. On the head of the staff is an Ethiopian Orthodox cross with the imperial flag waving from it. The lion is the Lion of Judah, one of the many imperial titles signifying descent from King Solomon. The cross symbolizes the strength and reliance of the monarchy on the Ethiopian Orthodox Church, the dominant religion for the last sixteen hundred years.

Today, twenty-five years after the last emperor was dethroned, the flag consists of the traditional green, gold, and red horizontal stripes with a five-pointed star and rays emitting from its points in the foreground over a light blue circular background. The star represents the unity and equity of the various ethnic groups, a symbol of a federalist government based on ethnic states.

Sovereignty and freedom are characteristics and thus symbols of Ethiopia both internally and externally. Many African nation-states, such as Ghana, Benin, Senegal, Cameroon, and the Congo adopted Ethiopia's colors for their flags when they gained independence from colonial rule.

Some Africans in the diaspora established a religious and political tradition deemed Ethiopianism. Proponents of this movement, which predates pan-Africanism, appropriated the symbol of Ethiopia to liberate themselves from oppression. Ethiopia was an independent, black nation with an ancient Christian Church that was not a colonial biproduct. Marcus Garvey spoke of viewing God through the spectacles of Ethiopia and often quoted Psalm 68:31, "Ethiopia shall stretch her hands unto God." From Garvey's teachings, the Rastafarian movement emerged in Jamaica in the 1930s. The name "Rastafari" is derived from Emperor Haile Selassie, whose precoronation name was Ras Tafari Makonnen. "Ras" is both a princely and a military title meaning "head" in Amharic. There is a population of Rastafarians living in the town of Shashamane, which was part of a land grant given to the Ethiopian World Federation by Emperor Haile Selassie in return for support during the Italian occupation during World War II.

History and Ethnic Relations

Emergence of the Nation. Ethiopia was home to some of the earliest hominid populations and possibly the region where Homo erectus evolved and expanded out of Africa to populate Eurasia 1.8 million years ago. The most notable paleoanthropological find in the country was "Lucy," a female Australopithicus afarensis discovered in 1974 and referred to as Dinqnesh ("you are marvelous") by Ethiopians.

The rise of sizable populations with a writing system dates back to at least 800 B.C.E. Proto-Ethiopian script inlaid on stone tablets has been found in the highlands, notably in the town of Yeha. The origin of this civilization is a point of contention. The traditional theory states that immigrants from the Arabian peninsula settled in northern Ethiopia, bringing with them their language, proto-Ethiopian (or Sabean), which has also been discovered on the eastern side of the Red Sea.

This theory of the origin of Ethiopian civilization is being challenged. A new theory states that both sides of the Red Sea were a single cultural unit and that the rise of civilization in the Ethiopian highlands was not a product of diffusion and colonization from southern Arabia but a cultural exchange in which the people of Ethiopia played a vital and active role. During this time period, waterways such as the Red Sea were virtual highways, resulting

The castle of the Emperor of Fastilida in Gondar.
The castle of the Emperor of Fastilida in Gondar.
in cultural and economic exchange. The Red Sea connected people on both coasts and produced a single cultural unit that included Ethiopia and Yemen, which over time diverged into different cultures. It is only in Ethiopia that proto-Ethiopian script developed and survives today in Ge'ez, Tigrean, and Amharic.

In the first century C.E. , the ancient city of Axum became a political, economic, and cultural center in the region. The Axumites dominated the Red Sea trade by the third century. By the fourth century they were one of only four nations in the world, along with Rome, Persia, and the Kushan Kingdom in northern India, to issue gold coinage.

In 333, Emperor 'Ēzānā and his court adopted Christianity; this was the same year the Roman Emperor Constantine converted. The Axumites and the Romans became economic partners who controlled the Red Sea and Mediterranean Sea trades, respectively.

Axum flourished through the sixth century, when Emperor Caleb conquered much of the Arabian peninsula. However, the Axumite Empire eventually declined as a result of the spread of Islam, resulting in a loss of control over the Red Sea as well as a depletion of natural resources in the region that left the environment unable to support the population. The political center shifted southward to the mountains of Lasta (now Lalibela).

Around 1150, a new dynasty arose in the mountains of Lasta. This dynasty was called the Zagwe and controlled much of northern Ethiopia from 1150 until 1270. The Zagwe claimed descendency from Moses, using genealogy to establish their legitimacy, a characteristic of traditional Ethiopian politics.

The Zagwe were unable to forge national unity, and squabbling over political power led to a decline in the dynasty's authority. A small Christian kingdom in northern Shewa challenged the Zagwe politically and economically in the thirteenth century. The Shewans were led by Yekunno Amlak, who killed the Zagwe king and proclaimed himself emperor. It was Yekunno Amlak who forged national unity and began constructing the nation.

National Identity. Most historians regard Yekunno Amlak as the founder of the Solomonic dynasty. In the process of legitimizing his rule, the emperor reproduced and possibly created the Kebra Nagast (Glory of the Kings) , which is regarded as the national epic. The Glory of the Kings is a blend of local and oral traditions, Old and New Testament themes, apocryphal text, and Jewish and Muslim commentaries. The epic was compiled by six Tigrean scribes, who claimed to have translated the text from Arabic into Ge'ez. Contained within its central narrative is the account of Solomon and Sheba, an elaborate version of the story found in I Kings of the Bible. In the Ethiopian version, King Solomon and the Queen of Sheba have a child named Menelik (whose name is derived from the Hebrew ben-melech meaning "son of the king"), who establishes a duplicate Jewish empire in Ethiopia. In establishing this empire, Menelik I brings the Ark of the Covenant with him, along with the eldest sons of the Israeli nobles. He is crowned the first emperor of Ethiopia, the founder of the Solomonic dynasty.

From this epic, a national identity emerged as God's new chosen people, heir to the Jews. The Solomonic emperors are descended from Solomon, and the Ethiopian people are the descendants of the sons of the Israeli nobles. The descent from Solomon was so essential to the nationalistic tradition and monarchical domination that Haile Selassie incorporated it into the country's first constitution in 1931, exempting the emperor from state law by virtue of his "divine" genealogy.

Both the Orthodox Church and the monarchy fostered nationalism. In the epilogue of the Glory of the Kings, Christianity is brought to Ethiopia and adopted as the "rightful" religion. Thus, the empire was genealogically descended from the great Hebrew kings but "righteous" in its acceptance of the word of Jesus Christ.

The Solomonic monarchy had a variable degree of political control over Ethiopia from the time of Yekunno Amlak in 1270 until Haile Selassie's dethroning in 1974. At times the monarchy was centrally strong, but during other periods regional kings held a greater amount of power. Menelik II played a vital role in maintaining a sense of pride in Ethiopia as an independent nation. On 1 March 1896, Menelik II and his army defeated the Italians at Adwa. The independence that emerged from that battle has contributed greatly to the Ethiopian sense of nationalistic pride in self-rule, and many perceive Adwa as a victory for all of Africa and the African diaspora.

Ethnic Relations. Traditionally, the Amhara have been the dominant ethnic group, with the Tigreans as secondary partners. The other ethnic groups have responded differently to that situation. Resistance to Amhara dominance resulted in various separatist movements, particularly in Eritrea and among the Oromo. Eritrea was culturally and politically part of highland Ethiopia since before Axum's achievement of political dominance; Eritreans claim Axumite descendency as much as Ethiopians do. However, in 1889, Emperor Menelik II signed the Treaty of Wichale, leasing Eritrea to the Italians in exchange for weapons. Eritrea was an Italian colony until the end of World War II. In 1947, Italy signed the Treaty of Paris, renouncing all its colonial claims. The United Nations passed a resolution in 1950 establishing Eritrea as a federation under the Ethiopian crown. By 1961, Eritrean rebels had begun fighting for independence in the bush. In November 1962, Haile Selassie abolished the federation and sent his army to quell any resistance, forcefully subordinating Eritrea against the will of its people.

African leaders passed the Cairo Resolution in 1964, which recognized the old colonial borders as the basis for nation-statehood. Under this treaty, Eritrea should have gained independence, but because of Haile Selassie's international political savvy and military strength, Ethiopia retained control. The Eritrean rebels fought the emperor until his deposition in 1974. When the Derge government was armed by the Soviets, the Eritreans still refused to accept external subjugation. The Eritrean People's Liberation Front (EPLF) fought side by side with the EPRDF and ousted the Derge in 1991, at which time Eritrea became an independent nation-state. Political confrontation has continued, and Ethiopia and Eritrea fought from June 1998 to June 2000 over the border between the two countries, with each accusing the other of infringing on its sovereignty.

The "Oromo problem" continues to trouble Ethiopia. Although the Oromo are the largest ethnic group in Ethiopia, never in their history have they maintained political power. During the period of European colonialism in Africa, the Ethiopian highlanders undertook an intra-African colonial enterprise. Many ethnic groups in the present state of Ethiopia, such as the Oromo, were subjected to that colonialization. Conquered ethnic groups were expected to adopt the identity of the dominant Amhara-Tigrean ethnic groups (the national culture). It was illegal to publish, teach, or broadcast in any Oromo dialect until the early 1970s, which marked the end of Haile Selassie's reign. Even today, after an ethnic federalist government has been established, the Oromo lack appropriate political representation.

Urbanism, Architecture, and the Use of Space

Traditional houses are round dwellings with cylindrical walls made of wattle and daub. The roofs are conical and made of thatch, and the center pole has

A traditional Ethiopian rural home built in cylindrical fashion with walls made of wattle and daub.
A traditional Ethiopian rural home built in cylindrical fashion with walls made of wattle and daub.
sacred significance in most ethnic groups, including the Oromo, Gurage, Amhara, and Tigreans. Variations on this design occur. In the town of Lalibella the walls of many houses are made of stone and are two-storied, while in parts of Tigre, houses are traditionally rectangular.

In more urban areas, a mixture of tradition and modernity is reflected in the architecture. The thatched roofs often are replaced with tin or steel roofing. The wealthier suburbs of Addis Ababa have multistory residences made of concrete and tile that are very western in form. Addis Ababa, which became the capital in 1887, has a variety of architectural styles. The city was not planned, resulting in a mixture of housing styles. Communities of wattle-and-daub tin-roofed houses often lie next to neighborhoods of one- and two-story gated concrete buildings.

Many churches and monasteries in the northern region are carved out of solid rock, including the twelve rock-hewn monolithic churches of Lalibela. The town is named after the thirteenth-century king who supervised its construction. The construction of the churches is shrouded in mystery, and several are over thirty-five feet high. The most famous, Beta Giorgis, is carved in the shape of a cross. Each church is unique in shape and size. The churches are not solely remnants of the past but are an active eight-hundred-year-old Christian sanctuary.

Food and Economy

Read more about the Food and Cuisine of Ethiopia.

Food in Daily Life. Injera , a spongy unleavened bread made from teff grain, is the staple of every meal. All food is eaten with the hands, and pieces of injera are ripped into bite-sized pieces and used to dip and grab stews ( wat ) made of vegetables such as carrots and cabbage, spinach, potatoes, and lentils. The most common spice is berberey, which has a red pepper base.

The food taboos found in the Old Testament are observed by most people as the Ethiopian Orthodox Church prescribes them. The flesh of animals with uncloven hoofs and those that do not chew their cud are avoided as unclean. It is nearly impossible to get pork. Animals used for food must be slaughtered with the head turned toward the east while the throat is cut "In the name of the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost" if the slaughterer is Christian or "In the name of Allah the Merciful" if the slaughterer is Muslim.

Food Customs at Ceremonial Occasions. The coffee ceremony is a common ritual. The server starts a fire and roasts green coffee beans while burning frankincense. Once roasted, the coffee beans are ground with a mortar and pestle, and the powder is placed in a traditional black pot called a jebena . Water is then added. The jebena is removed from the fire, and coffee is served after brewing for the proper length of time. Often, kolo (cooked whole-grain barley) is served with the coffee.

Meat, specifically beef, chicken, and lamb, is eaten with injera on special occasions. Beef is sometimes eaten raw or slightly cooked in a dish called kitfo. Traditionally, this was a staple of the diet, but in the modern era, many of the elite have shunned it in favor of cooked beef.

During Christian fasting periods, no animal products can be eaten and no food or drink can be consumed from midnight until 3 P.M. This is the standard way of fasting during the week, and on Saturday and Sunday no animal products may be consumed, although there is no time restriction on the fast.

Honey wine, called tej , is a drink reserved for special occasions. Tej is a mixture of honey and water flavored with gesho plant twigs and leaves and is traditionally drunk in tube-shaped flasks. High-quality tej has become a commodity of the upper class, which has the resources to brew and purchase it.

Basic Economy. The economy is based on agriculture, in which 85 percent of the population participates. Ecological problems such as periodic drought, soil degradation, deforestation, and a high population density negatively affect the agricultural industry. Most agricultural producers are subsistence farmers living in the highlands, while the population in the lowland peripheries is nomadic and engages in livestock raising. Gold, marble, limestone, and small amounts of tantalum are mined.

Land Tenure and Property. The monarchy and the Orthodox Church traditionally controlled and owned most of the land. Until the overthrow of the monarchy in 1974, there was a complex land tenure system; for example, there were over 111 different types of tenure in Welo Province. Two major types of traditional land ownership that are no longer in existence were rist (a type of communal land ownership that was hereditary) and gult (ownership acquired from the monarch or provincial ruler).

The EPRDF instituted a policy of public land use. In rural areas, peasants have land use rights, and every five years there is a reallotment of land among farmers to adapt to the changing social structures of their communities. There are several reasons for the nonexistence of individual land ownership in rural areas. If private ownership were legislated, the government believes that rural class divisions would increase as a result of a large number of peasants selling their land.

Commercial Activities. Agriculture is the major commercial activity. The chief staple crops include a variety of grains, such as teff, wheat, barley, corn, sorghum, and millet; coffee; pulses; and oilseed. Grains are the primary staples of the diet and are thus the most important field crops. Pulses are a principal source of protein in the diet. Oilseed consumption is widespread because the Ethiopian Orthodox Church prohibits the usage of animal fats on many days during the year.

Major Industries. After nationalization of the private sector before the 1974 revolution, an exodus of foreign-owned and foreign-operated industry ensued. The growth rate of the manufacturing sector declined. Over 90 percent of large scale industries are state-run, as opposed to less than 10 percent of agriculture. Under the EPRDF administration, there is both public and private industry. Public industries include the garment, steel, and textile industries, while much of the pharmaceuticals industry is owned by shareholders. Industry accounts for almost 14 percent of the gross domestic product, with textiles, construction, cement, and hydroelectric power constituting the majority of production.

Trade. The most important export crop is coffee, which provides 65 to 75 percent of foreign exchange earnings. Ethiopia has vast agricultural potential because of its large areas of fertile land, a diverse climate, and generally adequate rainfall. Hides and skins are the second largest export, followed by pulses, oilseed, gold, and chat, a quasi-legal plant whose leaves possess psychotropic qualities, that is chewed in social groups. The agricultural sector is subject to periodic drought, and poor infrastructure constrains the production and marketing of Ethiopia's products. Only 15 percent of the roads are paved; this is a problem particularly in the highlands, where there are two rainy seasons causing many roads to be unusable for weeks at a time. The two biggest imports are live animals and petroleum. The majority of Ethiopia's exports are sent to Germany, Japan, Italy and the United Kingdom, while imports are primarily brought in from Italy, the United States, Germany, and Saudi Arabia.

A group of women return from Lake Tana with jugs of water. Ethiopian women are traditionally in charge of domestic chores, while men are responsible for activities outside the home.
A group of women return from Lake Tana with jugs of water. Ethiopian women are traditionally in charge of domestic chores, while men are responsible for activities outside the home.

Division of Labor. Men do the most physically taxing activities outside the house, while women are in charge of the domestic sphere. Young children, especially on farms, get involved in household labor at an early age. Girls usually have a greater amount of work to do than boys.

Ethnicity is another axis of labor stratification. Ethiopia is a multi-ethnic state with a history of ethnic division. Currently, the Tigrean ethnic group controls the government and holds the core positions of power in the federal government. Ethnicity is not the sole basis for employment in the government; political ideology also plays an important role.

Social Stratification

Classes and Castes. There are four major social groups. At the top are high-ranking lineages, followed by low-ranking lineages. Caste groups, which are endogamous, with group membership ascribed by birth and membership associated with concepts of pollution, constitute the third social stratum. Slaves and the descendants of slaves are the lowest social group. This four-tier system is traditional; the contemporary social organization is dynamic, especially in urban areas. In urban society, the division of labor determines social class. Some jobs are esteemed more than others, such as lawyers and federal government employees. Many professions carry negative associations, such as metal workers, leather workers, and potters, who are considered of low status and frequently are isolated from mainstream society.

Symbols of Social Stratification. Symbols of social stratification in rural areas include the amount of grain and cattle a person possesses. While the symbols of wealth in urban areas are different, it is still these symbols which index high social status. Wealth is the chief criterion for social stratification, but the amount of education, the neighborhood in which one lives, and the job one holds are also symbols of high or low status. Automobiles are difficult to obtain, and the ownership of a car is a symbol of wealth and high status.

Political Life

Government. For almost sixteen hundred years, the nation was ruled by a monarchy with close ties to the Orthodox Church. In 1974, Haile Selassie, the last monarch, was overthrown by a communist military regime known as the Derge. In 1991, the Derge was deposed by the EPRDF (internally composed of the Tigrean People's Liberation Front, the Oromo People's Democratic Organization, and the Amhara National Democratic movement), which established a "democratic" government.

Ethiopia is currently an ethnic federation composed of eleven states that are largely ethnically based. This type of organization is intended to minimize ethnic strife. The highest official is the prime minister, and the president is a figurehead with no real power. The legislative branch consists of a bicameral legislation in which all people and ethnicities can be represented.

Ethiopia has not achieved political equality. The EPRDF is an extension of the military organization that deposed the former military dictatorship, and the government is controlled by the Tigrean People's Liberation Front. Since the government is ethnically and militarily based, it is plagued by all the problems of the previous regimes.

Leadership and Political Officials. Emperor Haile Selassie ruled from 1930 until 1974. During his lifetime, Selassie built massive infrastructure and created the first constitution (1931). Haile Selassie led Ethiopia to become the only African member of the League of Nations and was the first president of the Organization of African Unity, which is based in Addis Ababa. Micromanaging a nation caught up with the emperor in old age, and he was deposed by the communist Derge regime led by Lieutenant Colonel Mengistu Haile Mariam. Mengistu assumed power as head of state after having his two predecessors killed. Ethiopia then became a totalitarian state financed by the Soviet Union and assisted by Cuba. Between 1977 and 1978, thousands of suspected Derge oppositionists were killed.

In May 1991, the EPRDF forcefully took Addis Ababa, forcing Mengistu into asylum in Zimbabwe. Leader of the EPRDF and current prime minister Meles Zenawi pledged to oversee the formation of a multiparty democracy. The election of a 547-member constituent assembly was held in June 1994, and the adoption of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia's constitution ensued. Elections for the national parliament and regional legislatures were held in May and June of 1995, although most opposition parties boycotted the elections. A landslide victory was achieved by the EPRDF.

The EPRDF, along with 50 other registered political parties (most of which are small and ethnically based), comprise Ethiopia's political parties. The EPRDF is dominated by the Tigrean People's Liberation Front (TPLF). Because of that, after independence

Workers installing a water pipeline for irrigation in Hitosa.
Workers installing a water pipeline for irrigation in Hitosa.
in 1991, other ethnically-based political organizations withdrew from the national government. One example is the Oromo Liberation Front (OLF), which withdrew in June of 1992.

Social Problems and Control. Ethiopia is safer than the neighboring countries, particularly in urban areas. Ethnic issues play a role in political life, but this does not usually result in violence. Christians and Muslims live together peacefully.

Theft occurs infrequently in Addis Ababa and almost never involves weapons. Robbers tend to work in groups, and pickpocketing is the usual form of theft. Homelessness in the capital is a serious social problem, especially among the youth. Many street children resort to theft to feed themselves. Police officers usually apprehend thieves but rarely prosecute and often work with them, splitting the bounty.

Military Activity. The Ethiopian military is called the Ethiopian National Defence Force (ENDF) and is comprised of approximately 100,000 personnel, making it one of the largest military forces in Africa. During the Derge regime, troups numbered around one-quarter of a million. Since the early 1990s, when the Derge was overthrown, the ENDF has been in transition from a rebel force to a professional military organization trained in demining, humanitarian and peacekeeping operations, and military justice.

From June 1998 until the summer of 2000, Ethiopia was involved in the largest war on the African continent with its northern neighbor, Eritrea. The war was essentially a border conflict. Eritrea was occupying the towns of Badme and Zalambasa, which Ethiopia claimed was sovereign territory. The conflict can be traced to Emperor Menelik, who sold Eritrea to the Italians in the late nineteenth century.

Large-scale fighting occurred in 1998 and 1999 with no change in the combatants' positions. During the winter months, fighting was minimal because of the rains, which make it difficult to move armaments. In the summer of 2000, Ethiopia achieved large-scale victories and marched through the contested border area into Eritrean territory. After these victories, both nations signed a peace treaty, which called for United Nations peacekeeping troops to monitor the contested area and professional cartographers to demarcate the border. Ethiopian troops withdrew from undisputed Eritrean territory after the treaty was signed.

Social Welfare and Change Programs

Traditional associations are the major sources of social welfare. There are many different types of social welfare programs in different parts of the country; these programs have religious, political, familial, or other bases for their formation. Two of the most prevalent are the iddir and debo systems.

An iddir is an association that provides financial assistance and other forms of aid for people in the same neighborhood or occupation and between friends or kin. This institution became prevalent with the formation of urban society. The main objective of an iddir is to assist families financially during times of stress, such as illness, death, and property losses from fire or theft. Recently, iddirs have been involved in community development, including the construction of schools and roads. The head of a family who belongs to an iddir contributes a certain amount of money every month to benefit individuals in times of emergency.

The most widespread social welfare association in rural areas is the debo. If a farmer is having difficulty tending his fields, he may invite his neighbors to help on a specific date. In return, the farmer must provide food and drink for the day and contribute his labor when others in the same debo require help. The debo is not restricted to agriculture but is also prevalent in housing construction.

Nongovernmental Organizations and Other Associations

Nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) are the main sources of aid to alleviate rural poverty. The Swedish International Development Agency was the first NGO in Ethiopia in the 1960s, focusing on rural development. Drought and war have been the two biggest problems in recent years. NGOs played a crucial role in famine relief in Welo and Tigre during the 1973–1974 and 1983–1984 famines through the coordination of the Christian Relief and Development Association. In 1985, the Churches Drought Action Africa/Ethiopia formed a joint relief partnership to distribute emergency food relief to areas controlled by rebel forces.

When the EPRDF took power in 1991, a large number of donor organizations supported and funded rehabilitation and development activities. Environmental protection and food-based programs take precedence today, although development and preventive health care are also activities on which NGO focuses.

Gender Roles and Statuses

Division of Labor by Gender. Traditionally, labor has been divided by gender, with authority given to the senior male in a household. Men are responsible for plowing, harvesting, the trading of goods, the slaughtering of animals, herding, the building of houses, and the cutting of wood. Women are responsible for the domestic sphere and help the men with some activities on the farm. Women are in charge of cooking, brewing beer, cutting hops, buying and selling spices, making butter, collecting and carrying wood, and carrying water.

The gender division in urban areas is less pronounced than it is in the countryside. Many women work outside of the home, and there tends to be a greater awareness of gender inequality. Women in urban areas are still responsible, with or without a career, for the domestic space. Employment at a baseline level is fairly equivalent, but men tend to be promoted much faster and more often.

The Relative Status of Women and Men. Gender inequality is still prevalent. Men often spend their free time socializing outside the home, while women take care of the household. If a man participates in domestic activities such as cooking and child rearing, he may become a social outcast.

The education of boys is stressed more than that of girls, who are supposed to help with household work. Girls are restricted from leaving the home and engaging in social activities with friends much more than boys are.

Marriage, Family, and Kinship

Marriage. Traditional marriage customs vary by ethnic group, although many customs are transethnic. Arranged marriages are the norm, although this practice is becoming much less common, especially in urban areas. The presentation of a dowry from the male's family to the female's family is common. The amount is not fixed and varies with the wealth of the families. The dowry may include livestock, money, or other socially valued items.

The proposal usually involves elders, who travel from the groom's house to the parents of the bride to ask for the marriage. The elders are traditionally the individuals who decide when and where the ceremony takes place. Both the bride's and groom's families prepare food and drink for the ceremony by brewing wine and beer and cooking food. A great deal of food is prepared for the occasion, especially meat dishes.

Christians often wed in Orthodox churches, and a variety of wedding types exist. In the takelil type, the bride and groom participate in a special ceremony and agree never to divorce. This type of commitment has become rare in recent years. Wedding garb in the cities is very western: suits and tuxedos for the men and a white wedding gown for the bride.

Domestic Unit. The basic family structure is much larger than the typical Western nuclear unit. The oldest male is usually the head of the household and is in charge of decision making. Men, usually having the primary income, control the family economically and distribute money. Women are in charge of domestic life and have significantly more contact with the children. The father is seen as an authority figure.

Children are socially required to care for their parents, and so there are often three to four generations in a household. With the advent of urban living, however, this pattern is changing, and children often live far from their families and have a much harder time supporting them. Urbanites have a responsibility to send money to their families in rural areas and often try their best to relocate their families to the cities.

Inheritance. Inheritance laws follow a fairly regular pattern. Before an elder passes away he or she orally states his or her wishes for the disposal of possessions. Children and living spouses are typically

An Ethiopian woman looking at fabric in Fasher.
An Ethiopian woman looking at fabric in Fasher.
the inheritors, but if an individual dies without a will, property is allotted by the court system to the closest living relatives and friends. Land, although not officially owned by individuals, is inheritable. Men are more privileged then females and usually receive the most prized properties and equipment, while women tend to inherit items associated with the domestic sphere.

Kin Groups. Descent is traced through both the mother's and father's families, but the male line is more valued than the female. It is customary for a child to take the father's first name as his or her last name. In rural areas, villages are often composed of kin groups that offer support during difficult times. The kin group in which one participates tends to be in the male line. Elders are respected, especially men, and are regarded as the source of a lineage. In general, an elder or groups of elders are responsible for settling disputes within a kin group or clan.

Socialization

Infant Care. Children are raised by the extended family and community. It is the primary duty of the mother to care for the children as part of her domestic duties. If the mother is not available, the

Colorfully robed deacons at the Timkat Festival in Lalibela.
Colorfully robed deacons at the Timkat Festival in Lalibela.
responsibility falls to the older female children as well as the grandmothers.

In urban society, where both parents often work, babysitters are employed and the father takes a more active role in child care. If a child is born out of wedlock, whoever the women claims is the father is required by law to support the child economically. If parents get divorced, a child five years old or older is asked with whom he or she wants to live.

Child Rearing and Education. During early childhood, children have the greatest exposure to their mothers and female relatives. At around the age of five, especially in urban areas, children start attending school if their families can afford the fees. In rural areas, schools are few and children do farm work. This means a very low percentage of rural youth attend school. The government is trying to alleviate this problem by building accessible schools in rural areas.

The patriarchal structure of society is reflected in the stress on education for boys over girls. Women face discrimination problems as well as physical abuse in school. Also, the belief still exists that females are less competent then males and that education is wasted on them.

Higher Education. Children who do well in elementary school go on to secondary school. It is felt that missionary schools are superior to government schools. Fees are required for missionary schools, although they are reduced considerably for religious adherents.

University is free, but admission is extremely competitive. Every secondary student takes a standardized examination to get into college. The acceptance rate is approximately 20 percent of all the individuals who take the tests. There is a quota for the various departments, and only a certain number of individuals are enrolled in their desired majors. The criterion is the grades of first-year students; those with the highest marks get the first choice. In 1999, enrollment at Addis Ababa University was approximately 21,000 students.

Etiquette

Greeting takes the form of multiple kisses on both cheeks and a plethora of exchanged pleasantries. Any hint of superiority is treated with contempt. Age is a factor in social behavior, and the elderly are treated with the utmost respect. When an elderly person or guest enters a room, it is customary to stand until that person is seated. Dining etiquette is also important. One must always wash the hands before a meal, since all food is eaten with the hands from a communal dish. It is customary for the guest to initiate eating. During a meal, it is proper form to pull injera only from the space directly in front of oneself. Depleted portions are replaced quickly. During meals, participation in conversation is considered polite; complete attention to the meal is thought to be impolite.

Religion

Religious Beliefs. There has been religious freedom for centuries in Ethiopia. The Ethiopian Orthodox Church is the oldest sub-Saharan African church, and the first mosque in Africa was built in the Tigre province. Christianity and Islam have coexisted peacefully for hundreds of years, and the Christian kings of Ethiopia gave Muhammad refuge during his persecution in southern Arabia, causing the Prophet to declare Ethiopia exempt from Muslim holy wars. It is not uncommon for Christians and Muslims to visit each other's house of worship to seek health or prosperity.

The dominant religion has been Orthodox Christianity since King 'Ēzānā of Axum adopted Christianity in 333. It was the official religion during the reign of the monarchy and is currently the unofficial religion. Because of the spread of Islam in Africa, Ethiopian Orthodox Christianity was severed from the Christian world. This has led to many unique characteristics of the church, which is considered the most Judaic formal Christian church.

The Ethiopian Orthodox Church lays claim to the original Ark of the Covenant, and replicas (called tabotat ) are housed in a central sanctuary in all churches; it is the tabot that consecrates a church. The Ethiopian Orthodox Church is the only established church that has rejected the doctrine of Pauline Christianity, which states that the Old Testament lost its binding force after the coming of Jesus. The Old Testament focus of the Ethiopian Orthodox Church includes dietary laws similar to the kosher tradition, circumcision after the eighth day of birth, and a Saturday sabbath.

Judaism historically was a major religion, although the vast majority of Ethiopian Jews (called Beta Israel) reside in Israel today. The Beta Israel were politically powerful at certain times. Ethiopian Jews often were persecuted during the last few hundred years; that resulted in massive secret airlifts in 1984 and 1991 by the Israeli military.

Islam has been a significant religion in Ethiopia since the eighth century but has been viewed as the religion of the "outside" by many Christians and scholars. Non-Muslims traditionally have interpreted Ethiopian Islam as hostile. This prejudice is a result of the dominance of Christianity.

Polytheistic religions are found in the lowlands, which also have received Protestant missionaries. These Evangelical churches are fast growing, but Orthodox Christianity and Islam claim the adherence of 85 to 90 percent of the population.

Religious Practitioners. The leader of the Ethiopian Orthodox Church is often referred to as the Patriarch or the Pope by Ethiopians. The Patriarch, a Copt himself, was traditionally sent from Egypt to lead the Ethiopian Orthodox Church. This tradition was abandoned in the 1950s when the Patriarch was chosen by Emperor Haile Selassie from within the Ethiopian Church.

The tradition of the Patriarch being sent from Egypt began in the fourth century. The conversion of Emperor 'Ēzānā of Axum to Christianity was facilitated by a Syrian boy named Frumentious, who worked in the emperor's court. After Emperor 'Ēzānā's conversion, Frumentious traveled to Egypt to consult the Coptic authorities about sending a Patriarch to head the Church. They concluded that Frumentious would best serve in that role and he was anointed 'Abba Salama (father of Peace) and became the first Patriarch of the Ethiopian Orthodox Church.

Within the Orthodox Church there are several categories of clergy, including priests, deacons, monks, and lay-priests. It was estimated in the 1960s that between 10 and 20 percent of all adult Amhara and Tigrean men were priests. These figures are much less extraordinary when one considers that at that time there were 17,000 to 18,000 churches in the Amhara and Tigrean regions in the north-central highlands.

Rituals and Holy Places. The majority of celebrations are religious in nature. The major Christian holidays include Christmas on 7 January, Epiphany (celebrating the baptism of Jesus) on 19 January, Good Friday and Easter (in late April), and Meskel (the finding of the true cross) on 17 September. Muslim holidays include Ramadan, Id Al Adha (Arafa) on 15 March, and the birthday of Muhammad on 14 June. During all religious holidays, adherents go to their respective places of worship. Many Christian holidays are also state holidays.

Death and the Afterlife. Death is a part of daily life as famine, AIDS, and malaria take many lives. Three days of mourning for the dead is the norm. The dead are buried the day they die, and special

Taylors' Street in Harrar. Close living conditions, poor sanitation, and lack of medical facilities has led to an increase of communicable diseases.
Taylors' Street in Harrar. Close living conditions, poor sanitation, and lack of medical facilities has led to an increase of communicable diseases.
food is eaten that is provided by family and friends. Christians bury their dead on the grounds of the church, and Muslims do the same at the mosque. Muslims read from religious texts, while Christians tend to cry for their dead during the mourning period.

Medicine and Health Care

Communicable diseases are the primary illnesses. Acute respiratory infections such as tuberculosis, upper respiratory infections, and malaria are the Ministry of Health's priority health problems. These afflictions accounted for 17 percent of deaths and 24 percent of hospital admissions in 1994 and 1995. Poor sanitation, malnutrition, and a shortage of health facilities are some of the causes of communicable diseases.

AIDS has been a serious health problem in recent years. AIDS awareness and condom usage are increasing, however, especially among the urban and educated populations. In 1988 the AIDS Control and Prevention Office conducted a study in which 17 percent of the sample population tested positive for HIV. A total of 57,000 AIDS cases were reported up to April 1998, almost 60 percent of which were in Addis Ababa. This places the HIV-infected population in 1998 at approximately three million. The urban HIV-positive population is drastically higher than the rural at 21 percent versus under 5 percent, respectively, as of 1998. Eighty-eight percent of all infections result from heterosexual transmission, mainly from prostitution and multiple sex partners.

The federal government has created a National AIDS Control Program (NACP) to prevent the transmission of HIV and reduce the associated morbidity and mortality. The goals are to inform and educate the general population and increase awareness about AIDS. Prevention of transmission through safer sexual practices, condom usage, and appropriate screening for blood transfusion are goals of the NACP.

Government health spending has risen. The absolute level of health expenditure, however, remains far below the average for other sub-Saharan African countries. The health system is primarily curative despite the fact that most health problems are amenable to preventive action.

In 1995-1996, Ethiopia had 1,433 physicians, 174 pharmacists, 3,697 nurses, and one hospital for every 659,175 people. The physician-to-population ratio was 1:38,365. These ratios are very low in comparison to other sub-Saharan developing countries, although the distribution is highly unbalanced in favor of urban centers. For example, 62 percent of the doctors and 46 percent of the nurses were found in Addis Ababa, where 5 percent of the population resides.

Secular Celebrations

The major state holidays are New Year's Day on 11 September, Victory Day of Adwa on 2 March, Ethiopian Patriots Victory Day on 6 April, Labor Day on 1 May, and the Downfall of the Derge, 28 May.

The Arts and Humanities

Literature. The classical language of Ge'ez, which has evolved into Amharic and Tigrean, is one of the four extinct languages but is the only indigenous writing system in Africa that is still in use. Ge'ez is still spoken in Orthodox Church services. The development of Ge'ez literature began with translations of the Old and New Testaments from Greek and Hebrew. Ge'ez was also the first Semitic language to employ a vowel system.

Many apocryphal texts such as the Book of Enoch, the Book of Jubilees, and the Ascension of Isaiah have been preserved in their entirety only in Ge'ez. Even though these texts were not included in the Biblical canon, among Biblical scholars (and Ethiopian Christians) they are regarded as significant to an understanding of the origin and development of Christianity.

Graphic Arts. Religious art, especially Orthodox Christian, has been a significant part of the national culture for hundreds of years. Illuminated Bibles and manuscripts have been dated to the twelfth century, and the eight-hundred-year-old churches in Lalibela contain Christian paintings, manuscripts, and stone relief.

Wood carving and sculpture are very common in the southern lowlands, especially among the Konso. A fine arts school has been established in Addis Ababa that teaches painting, sculpture, etching, and lettering.

Performance Arts. Christian music is believed to have been established by Saint Yared in the sixth century and is sung in Ge'ez, the liturgical language. Both Orthodox and Protestant music is popular and is sung in Amharic, Tigrean, and Oromo. The traditional dance, eskesta, consists of rhythmic shoulder movements and usually is accompanied by the kabaro , a drum made from wood and animal skin, and the masinqo, a single-stringed violin with an A-shaped bridge that is played with a small bow. Foreign influences exist in the form of Afro-pop, reggae, and hip-hop.

The State of the Physical and Social Sciences

The university system fosters academic research in cultural and physical anthropology, archaeology, history, political science, linguistics, and theology. A large percentage of the leading scholars in these fields went to the University of Addis Ababa. A lack of funding and resources has constrained the development of the university system. The library system is inferior, and computers and Internet access are not available at the university.

Bibliography

Addis Ababa University. Addis Ababa University: A Brief Profile 2000 , 2000.

Ahmed, Hussein. "The Historiography of Islam in Ethiopia." Journal of Islamic Studies 3 (1): 15–46, 1992.

Akilu, Amsalu. A Glimpse of Ethiopia, 1997.

Briggs, Philip. Guide to Ethiopia, 1998.

Brooks, Miguel F. Kebra Nagast [The Glory of Kings], 1995.

Budge, Sir. E. A. Wallis. The Queen of Sheba and Her Only Son Menyelek, 1932.

Cassenelli, Lee. "Qat: Changes in the Production and Consumption of a Quasilegal Commodity in Northeast Africa." In The Social Life of Things: Commodities in Cultural Perspectives, Arjun Appadurai, ed., 1999.

Clapham, Christopher. Haile-Selassie's Government, 1969.

Connah, Graham. African Civilizations: Precolonial Cities and States in Tropical Africa: An Archaeological Perspective, 1987.

Donham, Donald, and Wendy James, eds. The Southern Marches of Imperial Ethiopia, 1986.

Haile, Getatchew. "Ethiopic Literature." In African Zion: The Sacred Art of Ethiopia, Roderick Grierson, ed.,1993.

Hastings, Adrian. The Construction of Nationhood: Ethnicity, Religion and Nationalism, 1995.

Hausman, Gerald. The Kebra Nagast: The Lost Bible of Rastafarian Wisdom and Faith from Ethiopia and Jamaica, 1995.

Heldman, Marilyn. "Maryam Seyon: Mary of Zion." In African Zion: The Sacred Art of Ethiopia, Roderick Grierson, ed., 1993.

Isaac, Ephraim. "An Obscure Component in Ethiopian Church History." Le Museon, 85: 225–258, 1971.

——. "Social Structure of the Ethiopian Church." Ethiopian Observer, XIV (4): 240–288, 1971.

—— and Cain Felder. "Reflections on the Origins of Ethiopian Civilization." In Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference of Ethiopian Studies, 1988.

Jalata, Asafa. "The Struggle For Knowledge: The Case of Emergent Oromo Studies." African Studies Review, 39(2): 95–123.

Joireman, Sandra Fullerton. "Contracting for Land: Lessons from Litigation in a Communal Tenure Area of Ethiopia." Canadian Journal of African Studies, 30 (2): 214–232.

Kalayu, Fitsum. "The Role of NGOs in Poverty Alleviation in Rural Ethiopia: The Case of Actionaid Ethiopia." Master's thesis. School of Developmental Studies, University of Anglia, Norway.

Kaplan, Steven. The Beta Israel (Falasha) in Ethiopia, 1992.

Kessler, David. The Falashas: A Short History of the Ethiopian Jews, 1982.

Levine, Donald Nathan. Wax and Gold: Tradition and Innovation in Ethiopian Culture, 1965.

——. Greater Ethiopia: The Evolution of a Multiethnic Society, 1974.

Library of Congress. Ethiopia: A Country Study, 1991, http://lcweb2.loc.gov/frd/cs/ettoc.html .

Marcus, Harold. A History of Ethiopia, 1994.

Mengisteab, Kidane. "New Approaches to State Building in Africa: The Case of Ethiopia's Based Federalism." African Studies Review, 40 (3): 11–132.

Mequanent, Getachew. "Community Development and the Role of Community Organizations: A Study in Northern Ethiopia." Canadian Journal of African Studies, 32 (3): 494–520, 1998.

Ministry of Health of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia. National AIDS Control Program: Regional Multisectoral HIV/AIDS Strategic Plan 2000–2004, 1999.

——. Health and Health Related Indicators: 1991, 2000.

Munro-Hay, Stuart C. "Aksumite Coinage." In African Zion: The Sacred Art of Ethiopia, Roderick Grierson, ed., 1993.

Pankhurst, Richard. A Social History of Ethiopia, 1990.

Rahmato, Dessalegn. "Land Tenure and Land Policy in Ethiopia after the Derg." In Papers of the 12th International Conference of Ethiopian Studies, Harold Marcus, ed., 1994.

Ullendorff, Edward. The Ethiopians: An Introduction to Country and People, 1965.

——. Ethiopia and the Bible, 1968.

United Nations Development Program. Health Indicators in Ethiopia, Human Development Report, 1998.

Web Sites

Central Intelligence Agency. World Factbook 1999: Ethiopia, 1999, http://www.odci.gov/cia/publications/factbook/et.html

Ethnologue. Ethiopia (Catalogue of Languages), 2000 http://www.sil.org/ethnologue/countries/Ethi.html

United States Department of State. Background Notes: Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, 1998, http://www.state.gov/www/background_notes/ethiopia_0398_bgn.html

—A DAM M OHR



User Contributions:

joe
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Nov 14, 2006 @ 9:09 am
this sight helped me alot thanks man!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
joe
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Nov 18, 2006 @ 3:15 pm
this sight really helped out man. thanks!!!!!!!!!!
Yared Tezera
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Apr 22, 2007 @ 7:07 am
I love the pictures ,they are so awesome.Please adde little more on the architectural history of Ethiopia. Little is known and studied about this incrediabel part of our history which the world would love to share.
BA
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May 2, 2007 @ 12:00 am
Thanks for the brief info on different aspects of ethiopia...it's awsome!
Tesfaye Noko
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Sep 7, 2007 @ 2:14 pm
I appreciate the content. Thankyou so much. A little word could be able to sense the whole massage weather in positive or in negative. I am therefore, kindly asking to up date some of the statistics and (some paragraphs) accordingly.

Does it possible to clarify culture in its wide content since Ethiopians have various culture settings as their ethinic diversification? I recommend to catagorise a culture in sub divisions.
With greetings
Tesfaye Noko,
The Catholic University of Eastern Africa, Nairobi
biniyam yohannes
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Jan 12, 2008 @ 6:06 am
its great to know more about your country on line thank you so much
DD
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Jan 21, 2008 @ 9:09 am
I admire the richness and yet the compact nature of the paper. The way the culture of the country is delineated is undisputably pleasant and flowing. However, it still is all about the stereotypical image of the northern part of the big country, which defies the diversity of all of the ethiopian people. Simply put, it better be presented as "The culture of northern Ethiopia"

Respectfully
DD
Abune yosph
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Mar 11, 2008 @ 10:22 pm
first of all God Bless you, you did great job, be continue, we need some people to do this kind of amazing job,i hope you very happy by your on fantastic job.

God bless again,
TSEGEREDA
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Jul 17, 2008 @ 4:16 pm
I LOVE IT YOU GUYS MAKE ME PROUD B/C I NEVER NEW MUCH ABOUT ETHIOPIA BUT NOW I DO!IF YOU CAN I NEED TRADITIONAL WEEDING GOWN(KABA)SO PLEASE HELP ME?
Frehiwot
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Dec 15, 2008 @ 3:03 am
It is great and fantastic. It gives more information about Ethiopia and very helpful for everybody who wants to access information concerning the issues listed in the above.

Keep it up!
Jayb3
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Feb 2, 2009 @ 10:10 am
I really like the pictures, very nice. You did a wonderful job
Korea S.
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Mar 25, 2009 @ 5:05 am
Great job of gathering up information. It really helped me on my report. Thanks!
Fitsum Merkeb
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Jun 3, 2009 @ 2:02 am
All the pictures are very interesting. They are very helpful for those who are in need of knowing Ethiopian history. I admire them and all your works.
Thank you!
Tesfaye Noko
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Sep 21, 2009 @ 12:12 pm
Here am working in comments all over the pages of this article as much as I can. I"m also working with comments of many other webs. I send you my comments soon. would you please give me your e-mail?
Tesfaye Noko, The Catholic University of Eastern Africa,Nairobi.
Aster
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Oct 4, 2009 @ 4:16 pm
i rely say thankyou so much for this intersting inforemation in the email in next time tray to see the nation and nationalitis like SNNPR state has a great culture,
thank you
ESHE
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Dec 30, 2009 @ 7:07 am
IT IS NICE INFORMATION!BUT YOU HAVE EXPLAIN ALSO THE USE OF BIO-CULTURAL DIVERSITY OF ETHIOPIA WITH ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION
Nathalie Dary
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Jan 19, 2010 @ 1:13 pm
I liked your website because in my school we are doing a project on Ethiopia, Rwanda and Liberia so this website will help me a lot Thanks!!
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Feb 12, 2010 @ 11:11 am
I REALLY HAPPY WITH THE ALL THE INFORMATION AND THE PICTURE I PROUD OF U.PROUD BY YOUR ETHIOPIANISM
GOD BLESS ETHIOPIA.Siifan from Adama university
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May 19, 2010 @ 1:13 pm
Full of useful facts and information. it helped me a lot in my work.
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Jun 7, 2010 @ 11:11 am
i love ethiopia i think it is amazing i wanna go there one day very soon but untill then i ll just research it hahah
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Jun 8, 2010 @ 9:21 pm
This is a good site and it helped me a lot. Good work.
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Jul 22, 2010 @ 1:01 am
Great INFO! Just what I need for my school report!
Miles
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Jul 22, 2010 @ 1:01 am
GREAT INFO! It was a good browse! This was very informative, right sis?
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Sep 21, 2010 @ 6:18 pm
I would like to site this website as a references. Could you provide primary author information and any relevant bio. Much thanks for the info.
pippa
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Sep 29, 2010 @ 3:03 am
thankyou so much for this website. it is extremely interesting.
i understand that the ethiopians have a compeletely different calendar to other countries around the world.
when we adopted a little boy 4 years ago, we didn't have much information about his history and don't know his exact date of birth.
i have come across an old picture of my adopted son dated 27.11.96. in the picture he is sitting at a table with what looks like a loaf of bread and 5 candles. do the candle symbolise birthdays like they do in the western world?
with the info above, would you be able to give me his date of birth. i know his family comes from the oromo ethnic group.

thankyou so much for taking the time to read this message and i very much hope you will be able to help me

regards
pippa
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Sep 29, 2010 @ 6:18 pm
Wow this is the perfect description of Ethiopia. It has every detail and helps a lot for someone who wants to know about the country. Well done guys am so proud.
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Oct 6, 2010 @ 7:07 am
INTERESTING, Try to explain more because Ethiopia is one of the African countries which is highly diversified in culture. Thank you.
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Oct 8, 2010 @ 4:16 pm
I am from Ethiopia so this information helps me to remmember it
henok
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Oct 21, 2010 @ 1:13 pm
this is really helpful and clear informato about ethio
thanx
kate
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Oct 30, 2010 @ 9:21 pm
I didn't start this project on ethiopia till two days before it was due but i finished it thanks to this!!!
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Nov 9, 2010 @ 12:12 pm
thanks to puting this add this is so educational and helps me learn more about your country
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Nov 26, 2010 @ 8:08 am
Thanks. It helps!

Nevertheless, please let the readers know that what is presented here is an amount of a tip of an ice burg as seen with some one who has never been to the deep see to imagine the scale of it.

Enriching it by giving it more depth and width would count to a great job!

Deribie
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Nov 28, 2010 @ 1:13 pm
This is a brilliant article! It really helped me with my lab in Sociology.
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Dec 16, 2010 @ 9:21 pm
it is very interesting topic than you tell as; and i believe that it changes the peoples knowledge in the world.
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Dec 27, 2010 @ 3:15 pm
Nice presentatio, i believe fairly objective doing justice to historical facts.
Mack
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Dec 30, 2010 @ 9:21 pm
This site helped me so much for a project! Thank you!
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Jan 28, 2011 @ 2:02 am
I read very carefully all what you have displayed. I have to appreciate your attempt and effort to show the culture of ethiopian people. As i have read comments of individuals many have been benefited from your work. But I have reservation about your objective standard. The writing is highly influenced by the works of those whom you call 'dominant group'. It seems subjective. nothing has been said about the culture of Afar, southern people, gambella, benishangul, harai, and somali people. I know that the Agaw, Beja and Oromo played pivotal role in the politics of norther and central highland of ethiopia. I know even during the Expansion of Minilik Era, the shoa oromo and sho Amhara have great contribution for its success. I know now, the oromos are at least administering their state, using their language at state level for office purpose, for primary education, for media purpose and so on. I know the oromos are benefited very well from the current government as others are benefited. One thing that you should bear in mind is the article you presented is highly influenced by the thought of one ethnic group and one religion. Please in future, before writing something, refer many documents and try to minimise mistakes. currently, Ethiopia has nine states and two cities being administered under the federal government. we have no 11 states. I know there was no dominant ethnic group in ethiopia, rather dominant elites from some ethnic group. Do not confer wrong history to those who should not deserve.
I appreciate your intiation and pleasw polish your work. try to look to independent information from many sources.

Abdela Seid (B.A., LL.B, MSW)
Hadley
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Feb 8, 2011 @ 1:13 pm
Thank you for the wonderful information your Website has provided me with! I will be coming back soon!
Bubba
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Feb 9, 2011 @ 4:16 pm
this site is incredible. i love it. pictures are awesome.
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Feb 28, 2011 @ 2:14 pm
Your writing, predictably, is from a western voice that typically generalizes. Stating "Ethiopians are like this or that is"is highly stereotypical. I'm sure if someone were to say "Americans are like this or that" you would see this point more illustriously. Additionally, although informative, your sources are not entirely correct. As mentioned earlier, Ethiopia has a very rich culture with various ethnic groups demonstrating different customs. You have not elaborated on these different ethnic groups or discussed their habits. Instead, again, you have grossly morphed the different customs of different Ethiopian ethnic groups into one. Overall, a misrepresentation of a people, and a presentation of only one geographical part of the country.
Aida
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Mar 9, 2011 @ 3:15 pm
please read for trip need more info and tell chris about eating mannerisms
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Mar 11, 2011 @ 5:05 am
currently what is the number of orthodox, protestant,Catholic and christian believers?
AJ
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Mar 11, 2011 @ 2:14 pm
This information was very helpful. I hope to rely on this site again for something.
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Mar 16, 2011 @ 9:09 am
Ethiopian Society in general is peace loving. This society is religiously tolerant. There is an overall likeness of Indian society of its pre-independence days. It would be worthwhile for India to develop greater relations with Ethiopia so as to develop mutual well-being.
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Mar 16, 2011 @ 9:09 am
Ethiopian Society in general is peace loving. This society is religiously tolerant. There is an overall likeness of Indian society of its pre-independence days. It would be worthwhile for India to develop greater relations with Ethiopia so as to develop mutual well-being.
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Mar 24, 2011 @ 5:05 am
oh i fund it very interesting. it help me great, even i wonder your effor ...
AJ
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Mar 30, 2011 @ 12:12 pm
THIS REALLY HELPED ME THANKS. I WILL REFER BACK HERE WHEN I NEED TO.
Studying Student
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Mar 31, 2011 @ 2:14 pm
i think i might of missed it, but is there a paragraph about chalenges of the future? I need it for a school project. And i cant find any information on that subject.
Yenny
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Apr 2, 2011 @ 11:11 am
This is a great article, it help me a lot with my school presentation.
need more picture.
adrian
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Apr 15, 2011 @ 5:17 pm
thanks alot this site is realy helpful 4 when i need it in skool.
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Apr 29, 2011 @ 3:03 am
HEY THANKS FOR THIS INFORMATION, AM BUSY WITH MY ASSIGNMENT AT SCHOOL WHEREBY I HAVE TO SEARCH ABOUT A CULTURAL BELIEF OF ANY COUNTRY OF MY, THANKS I LIKE ETHIOPIANS THEIR ARE SO FRIENDLY AM LIVING WITH THM IM MY PLACE. LASTLY I WILL APPRECIATE TO RECIEVE MORE INFORMATION ABOUT THE COUNTRY. GOD BLESS ETHIOPIA

EXCELLENT MKHATSHWA (GAUTENG- SOUTH AFRICA)
bersabhe mitiku
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Jun 9, 2011 @ 9:09 am
i am really impressed,and proud to be Ethiopian.i really what to say thank u.pls up date us more.
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Jul 19, 2011 @ 9:21 pm
After reading "Cutting for Stone" I wanted to know more information about Ethiopia. This site was helpful to understand more of the history of Ethiopia and the people.
Thank you,
Marleen from Maine
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Sep 11, 2011 @ 1:01 am
Selamta! Greeting to you all readers n contributors.. Very eye opening historical events, yes I'm an Ethiopian who has so much to learn n discovery in own mothers n fathers land! I love the black n white photo, please do more to lift Ethiopian name for the world to discover our beautiful side! Thank you!
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Sep 13, 2011 @ 1:13 pm
What ever you did here is really nice. I love this website.
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Oct 26, 2011 @ 10:10 am
I am happy to say we are doing great here plese pray for us
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Oct 27, 2011 @ 7:07 am
this is a good work to know about ethipia.but it is very general.it was very good if it looks deeply into nations and nationalities like gurage ,amhara ,sidama ,...and others in brief .thank you very much.
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Oct 27, 2011 @ 10:22 pm
I need help in finding out who my father may be. I do know he is Ethiopian and came to Texas in the 70's. (Dallas/Ft Worth area). He attended the Univ. of Texas at Arlington. He was a room mate of a guy named Behau Said. I have met with Behau and his family on two occasions once back in 2003 and just recently in September of 2011 but have received no help. I was born in 1978. If anybody has any other resources that I can use to go about finding my father it would be greatly appreciated. I want my sons to have the oppurtunity to know where they came from. Please help!!
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Nov 9, 2011 @ 4:04 am
Can you tell me about the Dance traditions of Ethiopians? I know there is a shoulder shake emphasis... is there signficance or meanings connnected with these expressions, etc?
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Nov 13, 2011 @ 6:18 pm
Does anyone know if the people of Ethiopia are happy with the ligitamacy of their government in particular their Prime Minister?
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Nov 30, 2011 @ 10:10 am
does anyone know anything about the coming of age traditions of ethiopia


if so, please email me at mlcloninger12@yahoo.com
adel
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Dec 1, 2011 @ 6:18 pm
thank you i needed this for a report i am doing for school and i need it done by tommorow
assefa
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Dec 22, 2011 @ 6:06 am
i like it i read it carefully and grasp a good knowledge
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Jan 20, 2012 @ 2:02 am
I can believe it's amazing , you are so-so great writer and i would like to say, thank you ! and gohead ! !
Michael Lim
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Jan 23, 2012 @ 10:10 am
Thank u everyculture.com for giving ideas for my assignment.
Kathy
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Jan 23, 2012 @ 5:17 pm
Tnank you so much. This week, we celebrate Austrlaia Day. A child in my class, 4 years old, asked if we can celebrate Ethiopia Day too. I have used your site to find out more about Ethiopia to share with the children. thank you for a great resource
Hermela
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Jan 27, 2012 @ 6:18 pm
Thank you for leting the people knows about Ethiopians great cultures,I learn a lot from it.Keep doing the great job! God bless you!
addisalem
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Feb 6, 2012 @ 7:07 am
I AM ALWAYS SO EAGORED TO KNOW MORE ABOUT MY COUNTRY.WOULD YOU MIND HELPING ME ON DISCOVERING THE TRUE PICTURE OF MY COUNTRY ''ETHIOPIA''
bayew
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Feb 13, 2012 @ 6:06 am
it is the basic information that introduce to me all about Ethiopia.Keep it on.
jojo
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Mar 1, 2012 @ 2:14 pm
Thanks that was great information. couldnt find no other website with this kind of info :)
Nikki
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May 15, 2012 @ 6:06 am
Amazing, how much information you gathered about Ethiopia, thank you so much
Sisu
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May 22, 2012 @ 11:11 am
I do appreciate this information.. it is really supporting background point of Ethiopia. If it is possible can u tell me about how the Ethiopian alphabet originated.. and how the ancient peoples used the alphabet?
Abay Gelawneh
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Aug 11, 2012 @ 10:10 am
this is a good site that I want to praticipate please write more about the prvious kings like that of Atse Zereiakob, Tewodros, Minilik etc
Barbara
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Sep 4, 2012 @ 5:17 pm
A very comprehensive yet informative website. fantastic!
Girum
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Sep 28, 2012 @ 12:12 pm
It is really nice. It can give a brief description about our country. especially the contents are awesome.But in my point of view, there are some things that need to be updated or I can say changed. Specially on the parts that tells about art and humanity, and mostly on the university system.
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Oct 31, 2012 @ 3:15 pm
I would like to use this article in a paper I am writing for school. I am wondering if you can tell me how to cite it? I can't seem to find the author or date that this was written. I am looking for APA format. Thank you!
amelia
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Nov 5, 2012 @ 7:19 pm
thankyou a lot of help for my project thankyou 100,000,000 times
smegnew wubale
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Dec 21, 2012 @ 6:06 am
THIS IS VERY GOOD ETHIOPIAN CULTURE AND I APRICIET TO OUR WRITE OF ETHIOPIAN HISTORY
Johna
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Dec 24, 2012 @ 3:15 pm
I recently heard about an Etheopian dating ritual called "weighing of the baskets". Basically, it is weighing the pro's and cons of the prospective mates. Each family, and there could be several members of different generations, write letters about the bride or groom placing them in baskets and then the bride and grooms family exchange the baskets. This way the bride or groom gets the real truth...(hopefully) about their prospective mate. Prior to this, or it could be after this ritual, the groom lives with the bride's family and the bride lives with the grooms family so they can find out what kind of family they are marrying into and the parents of each can determine what kind of wife or husband each one will get and of course stop the marriage if they find out that one or the other has undesirable traits. I cannot find anything on this ritual. I have no idea how far back it goes so would appreciate some factual help. Thank you
Mulaata Gammachu
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Jan 2, 2013 @ 4:04 am
I got reliable informatinn for my assignment from this document.i want to say,"THANK YOU".i know that the word Ethiopia where comes from"Greek words".but the meaning was as i learned "a country which found south east of Egypt",so,a definition" burned face" was new for me .thank you.
Mulugeta. Zeleke
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Mar 4, 2013 @ 11:23 pm
I would like to thank you for introducing our country. At the same time this helped me a lot for my assignment on human culture course so I want to say thank you.
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May 17, 2013 @ 2:02 am
Thanks to the people who wrote this it very useful i`m pretty sure that with this information the total will be mine
asmamaw
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May 17, 2013 @ 5:05 am
wow it is so sweet!! The story is multi-content ethiopian features which provied an overall view of ethiopia. I wanna 2 appericat for z wonderful docmentation about ethiopia,eventhought it has updating information problem with time.but bro u did very good job. ASMAMAW YESGAT Cape Coast.
Berhane G/yesus
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May 27, 2013 @ 11:11 am
It is a good web site to understand Ethiopia"s history and to transfer knowledge for those people who have no any prior information about Ethiopia except hunger and poverty.
Ashenafi
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Aug 27, 2013 @ 7:07 am
i really would like to appreciate this article it gives basic understanding about my country "Ethiopia" but comparing to the the depth of Ethiopian culture and generally history of Ethiopia many has to be written so that many can know about us
Andre
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Aug 28, 2013 @ 9:09 am
I have been fascinated by the Christianity history would love to know if there any Catholic Church there, I would love to correspond with woman looking for serious relationship
Vikta
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Oct 23, 2013 @ 8:08 am
It is amazing knowing the unique and special culture of the land of Goodness.I would like to learn some Amharic language from this website.
May I know from you if there is possibility of a foreigner like me as Kenyan can marry an Ethiopian lady?
Temesgen HORDOFA
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Dec 14, 2013 @ 10:10 am
Really it is a good web site to understand Ethiopia"s history and to transfer knowledge for those people who have no any prior information about Ethiopia In the Future as to me it is better to add more different cultural things like Food,Closs,weading,& also Different opportunities in d/t way in our country the rest I'm very Happy to visit it.

With Best regards!
Bereket
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Apr 12, 2014 @ 2:02 am
I really enjoyed by your research. It helps me to know more about my country, my diversified country. Thank you very much for your help!
ivy
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Apr 24, 2014 @ 8:20 pm
This is the best website I've seen and probably will see about Ethiopia. Thank you!
Kuntakintê
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Jul 21, 2014 @ 11:11 am
The site is good! ... Although he noticed a tendency of Western dominance of civilization. In fact the world knows very little about Ethiopia, especially Caucasians. This place was called Cush, extending up to Southwest Asia, and was dominated by a king named Nimrod, founder of Babylon and builder of the tower of Babel. Thence proceeded all the peoples of the earth according to their own Bible. No wonder that scientists, anthropologists and geologists, biologists and historians claim that the man left the African continent conquesting the world. Thanks for the attempt, overall the information is valid.

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