ETHNONYMS: Chipayne, Flechas de Palo Apaches, Hipandis, Ipande, Lipane, Lipianis, Lipyane, Lypanes, Ypande
Religion and Expressive Culture
The Lipan are usually credited with introducing peyotism into Native North America. Despite the paucity of Lipan information, Opler managed to collect their mythology.
Opler, Morris E. (1940). Myths and Legends of the Lipan Apache Indians. Memoirs of the American Folklore Society, vol. 36. New York.
Tunnell, Curtis D., and W. W. Newcomb, Jr. (1969). A Lipan Apache Mission: San Lorenzo de la Santa Cruz, 1762-1771. Texas Memorial Museum, Bulletin no. 14. Austin.