Sierra Leone






Culture Name

Sierra Leonean

Alternative Names

The Republic of Sierra Leone

Orientation

Identification. The name "Sierra Leone" dates back to 1462, when Portuguese explorer Pedro da Cintra, sailing down the West African coast, saw the tall mountains rising up on what is now the Freetown Peninsula and called them the "Lion Mountains," or " Serra Lyoa ." Successive visits by English sailors and later British colonization modified the name to "Sierra Leone." Despite distinctive regional variations in language and local traditions, Sierra Leoneans today are united by many factors, such as their shared lingua franca Krio, widespread membership in men's and women's social associations and societies, and even sporting events, especially when the national football (soccer) team plays. At the same time, a worsening domestic economy, declining infrastructure, and deteriorating health conditions have prevented the country's progress, and have to some extent hindered the development of a strong sense of collective pride or shared national identification, especially in the rural areas outside the capital city.

Location and Geography. Sierra Leone is located on the west coast of Africa, north of the equator. With a land area of 27,699 square miles (71,740 square kilometers), it is slightly smaller than the state of South Carolina. Sierra Leone is bounded by Guinea to the north and northeast, Liberia to the south and southeast, and the Atlantic Ocean to the west.

There are a wide variety of ecological and agricultural zones to which people have adapted. Starting in the west, Sierra Leone has some 250 miles (400 kilometers) of coastline, giving it both bountiful marine resources and attractive tourist potential. This is followed by low-lying mangrove swamps, rain-forested plains and farmland, and finally a mountainous plateau in the east, where Mount Bintumani rises to 6,390 feet (1,948 meters). The climate is tropical, with two seasons determining the agricultural cycle: the rainy season from May to November, followed by the dry season from December to May, which includes harmattan , when cool, dry winds blow in off the Sahara Desert. The capital Freetown sits on a coastal peninsula, situated next to the world's third largest natural harbor. This prime location historically made Sierra Leone the center of trade and colonial administration in the region.

Demography. The population of Sierra Leone is 4.7 million people, the majority being children and youth. The population had been increasing at just over 2 percent per year, though this has declined somewhat since civil conflict began in 1991. Thirty-six percent of the people live in urban areas. The average woman bears six children during her lifetime. There are also numerous Sierra Leoneans living and working abroad, especially in England and the United States. They generate active discussion concerning events in their country, and provide an important source of resources for their families at home.

Linguistic Affiliation. Different reports list between fifteen and twenty different ethnic groups. This is a discrepancy not so much as to whether a certain group of people "exists" or not, but whether local dialects once spoken continue to be mutually distinct in the face of population expansion, intermarriage, and migration. For example, the two largest ethnic groups, the Temne and Mende, each comprise about 30 percent of the total population, and have come to "absorb" many of their less populous neighbors. For instance, Loko people will admit to being heavily culturally influenced by the Temne people surrounding them, the Krim and the Gola by

Sierra Leone
Sierra Leone
the Mende, and so on. In addition, there are a number of people of Lebanese descent, whose ancestors fled Turkish persecution in Lebanon in the late nineteenth century. While each ethnic group speaks its own language, the majority of people speak either Mende, Temne, or Krio. The official language spoken in schools and government administration is English, a product of British colonial influence. It is not unusual for a child growing up to learn four different languages—that of their parent's ethnic group, a neighboring group, Krio, and English.

Symbolism. To some extent symbolic imagery is regionally based—people from the western area often associate the tall cotton tree, white sandy beaches, or the large natural harbor with home; people from the east often think of coffee and cocoa plantations. Yet the palm tree and the rice grain are the national symbols par excellence, immortalized in currency, song, and folklore, and valued for their central and staple contributions to everyday life. Different species of palms contribute to cooking oil, thatch roofs, fermented wine, soap, fruits, and nuts. Perhaps the only thing more important than the palm tree is rice, the staple food, usually eaten every day. It is often hard for outsiders to grasp the centrality of rice to daily existence in Sierra Leone. Mende people, for example, have over 20 different words to describe rice in its variant forms, such as separate words for "sweet rice," "pounded rice," and "the rice that sticks to the bottom of a pot upon cooking."

History and Ethnic Relations

Archaeological evidence suggests that people have occupied Sierra Leone for at least twenty-five hundred years, and early migrations, expeditions, and wars gave the country its diverse cultural and ethnic mosaic. Traders and missionaries, especially from the north, were instrumental in spreading knowledge of tools, education, and Islam. The emergence of a modern national identity, however, did not begin until the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, when Bunce Island, off the coast of Freetown, became one of the centers of the West African slave trade. Over two thousand slaves per year were channeled through this port, thus increasing the incidence of warfare and violence among the local population. The slaves were especially valued off the coast of South Carolina on rice plantations, where it was discovered they had considerable agricultural expertise.

There are between fifteen and twenty ethnic groups in Sierra Leone, depending on one's linguistic tendency to "lump" or "split" groups of people speaking different dialects. Relations have been generally cordial among them, and Sierra Leone has largely avoided the racial tension characteristic of other parts of the world. In the recent conflict, for instance, one family may have children fighting for opposing sides, a fact which makes the violence difficult, as well as deeply and personally felt. When ethnic problems do arise, they often do so around the time of national elections, when politicians become accused of catering to the desires of one particular constituency (usually their own ethnic group) in order to gain votes.

Emergence of the Nation. When the slave trade began to be outlawed near the close of the eighteenth century, Sierra Leone became a resettlement site for freed slaves from England and the Americas, thus the name of the capital, "Freetown." English philanthropists, concerned about the welfare of unemployed blacks on the streets of London, pushed a "benevolent" movement to round them all up and take them back to Africa to settle, where they could begin life anew. Other migrants had been ex-slaves from America who had fought for the British during the Revolutionary War. The English loss had forced them to move to Canada, where they were not entirely welcome. Still others were ex-slaves who had revolted and were living freely in the mountains of Jamaica, until the British conquered the area and deported them to Nova Scotia, from where they emigrated en masse to Sierra Leone. Finally, from the time when the English officially outlawed the slave trade in 1807 up until the 1860s, the British navy policed the West African coast for trading ships, would intercept them, and release their human cargoes in Freetown, in what became a rapidly expanding settlement.

In 1808 Sierra Leone became a British crown colony, ruled under a colonial governor. The British administration favored a policy of "indirect rule" whereby they relied on slightly reorganized indigenous institutions to implement colonial policies and maintain order. Rulers who had been "kings" and "queens" became instead "paramount chiefs," some of them appointed by the administration, and then forced into a subordinate relationship. This allowed the crown to organize labor forces for timber cutting or mining, to grow cash crops for export, or to send work expeditions to plantations as far away as the Congo. Sierra Leoneans did not passively accept such manipulations. The 1898 "Hut Tax rebellion" occurred as a response to British attempts to impose an annual tax on all houses in the country. The Temne and Mende people especially refused to pay, attacking and looting trading stations, and killing policemen, missionaries, and all those suspected of assisting the colonial government.

Pressures to end colonialism had as much to do with Britain's weakened position following World War II as it did with the pan-African demands for autonomy. Sierra Leone became an independent, sovereign state on 27 April 1961 with Milton Margai as its prime minister. Ten years later, on 19 April 1971, the country became a republic, with an elected president as the head of state.

National Identity. National identity has been influenced by several factors. Besides the common experiences shared under colonialism or since independence, one of the most important has been the development of the regional lingua franca Krio, a language that unites all the different ethnic groups, especially in their trade and interaction with each other. Another has been the near universal membership, across ethnic lines, in men's and women's social organizations, especially Poro among the men, and Bundu ,or Sande , among the women.

Ethnic Relations. There are between fifteen and twenty ethnic groups in Sierra Leone, depending on one's linguistic tendency to "lump" or "split" groups of people speaking different dialects. Relations have generally been good between them, and Sierra Leone has largely avoided the racial tension characteristic of other parts of the world. When problems do arise, they often originate at the time of national elections, with politicians being accused of catering to the desires of one particular constituency (usually their own ethnic group) in order to gain votes.

Urbanism, Architecture, and the Use of Space

Around the capital, Freetown, the architecture of the houses is somewhat unique. Often wood and clapboard in structure, they are noticeably influenced by Krio and colonial English styles. Also in Freetown, large buildings have become a source of national pride, especially the government State House and the national football stadium, which is a central gathering place for many large events.

Outside of Freetown, the "traditional" house in Sierra Leone is a clay and earth structure, built with a thatch roof. Construction can either be "wattle and daub" (wattle is the frame of a group of poles secured by the intertwining of twigs and vines; this frame is then "daubed" or plastered with soft earth to cover it), or clay and earth blocks, which are dried and hardened in the sun. These construction techniques have the advantage of allowing the house to stay relatively cool inside during the season of hot and dry months. Modern materials are now often incorporated into building techniques, especially zinc sheets for roofs and cement to cover floors and walls. While making the interior of the house considerably less cool during the heat, these materials do allow for more permanent structures needing less maintenance.

Houses are either round or rectangular, and typically offer a veranda, a central parlor, and two or three interior rooms. These may function as bedrooms or food storage areas, or both. More well-to-do

A group of women belonging to a cooperative make garas, a traditional tie-dyed cloth.
A group of women belonging to a cooperative make garas, a traditional tie-dyed cloth.
people may cluster a group of houses together into a "compound," sometimes walled off, to separate it from the rest of the village. Kitchens are often located outside the main house, and may be open structures supporting only a roof, as adequate ventilation is needed to maintain the cooking fire. During the sunny days, however, the kitchen is often wherever a woman moves her "three stones," the large rocks that support a pot, underneath which is built a stick fire. This same area during cool harmattan evenings then becomes a place where children gather to hear stories told from their elders. During the rainy season, however, it is not unusual to see a woman move her pots inside the parlor of the main house to get away from the damp.

Older towns and villages are "traditional" in that there are no gridlike "streets" per se, and the houses appear in irregular and sometimes densely packed clumps. More recently constructed areas that have sprung up since the expansion of trade and commerce tend to be organized along railroad lines or streets, and are thus more linear in their order. Depending on the size, almost any village will include shops or market areas, a centralized public court space, a church and/or mosque, a school, wells, and latrines. Near the outside of the village is typically a cemetery, and at either edge of town a carefully defined "Poro" or "Bundu" bush, one area strictly off-limits for women, the other area offlimits for men.

Food and Economy

Food in Daily Life. For almost all Sierra Leoneans, rice is the staple food, consumed at virtually every meal. A Sierra Leonean will often say, without any exaggeration, "If I haven't eaten rice today, then I haven't eaten!" Other things are of course eaten—a wide variety of fruits, seafood, potatoes, cassava, etc.—but these are often considered to be just "snacks" and not "real food." Real food is rice, prepared numerous ways, and topped with a variety of sauces made from some combination of potato leaves, cassava leaves, hot peppers, peanuts, beans, okra, fish, beef, chicken, eggplant, onions, and tomatoes. Bones, particularly chicken bones, are a delicacy, because their brittle nature makes the sweet marrow inside easily accessible.

Along the street one can find snacks such as fresh mangoes, oranges, pineapple, or papaya, fried plantains, potato or cassava chunks with pepper sauce, small bags of popcorn or peanuts, bread, roasted corn, or skewers of grilled meat or shrimp. Local bars in some towns and villages will also sell poyo the sweet, lightly fermented palm wine tapped from the high tops of palm trees. Poyo bars can be areas of lively informal debate and conversation among men.

Sometimes villages, and sometimes families within villages, will have specific taboos or proscriptions against eating certain foods. These are usually attributed to a law handed down from someone's ancestor, perhaps the founder of the village. The taboo can be a restriction against certain kind of meat or a certain oil, or even against food prepared a certain way. Violation is usually seen as a risky proposition, and can incur the ill feelings of would-be guardians either living or dead.

Food Customs at Ceremonial Occasions. Almost all ceremonial occasions such as weddings, funerals, initiations, and memorial services demand the preparation of large platters of rice, distributed to guests until they are full. Depending on the occasion, a portion may also be offered to the ancestors, to honor their memory. Another common practice in this sense is to pour liquor in the ancestors' honor in the corners of a house. Other food traditions vary with region or religion: Mende Muslims, for instance, will mark a burial ceremony with lehweh , a ball of rice flour mixed with water and sugar, served with a kola nut on top.

Kola nuts are highly valued in and of themselves, and are often associated with greetings, diplomacy, provisions of respect, religious rites, and initiation ceremonies. High in caffeine concentration, they are also used as a stimulant, a clothing dye, and even in the preparation of medicines.

Basic Economy. Subsistence agriculture comprises the mainstay of the rural Sierra Leonean economy. Cash crops such as coffee, cocoa, peanuts, and tobacco are also important, as are small-scale marketing and commodity trade. Sierra Leone is rich in diamonds, bauxite, and gold, but the national economy receives little of the benefits that could come from the official export of these items, due to mismanagement, widespread smuggling, and corruption.

Land Tenure and Property. All the territory of an administrative chiefdom is technically held by the paramount chief. Underneath this authority, older families who can prove descent from a village founder then control the land close to their home. An elder male of the lineage usually administers land to those who request a plot to farm. This is most often to members of his extended family, but may include strangers who provide a gift of respect, and usually some portion of the ensuing harvest.

Commercial Activities. Sierra Leone's economy is largely informal, with small-scale marketing and trading of basic commodities, especially cloth, cigarettes, shoes, pots and pans, and mats. Women particularly dominate the market trade in foodstuffs.

Major Industries. Food processing (especially of flour, oil, rice, and fish) is one of the major industrial activities in Sierra Leone. Mining was for years the dominant industry, especially of rutile, bauxite, and diamonds. Also, because of Sierra Leone's beautiful beaches and "exotic" wildlife (hippos, chimpanzees, and monkeys), the tourist industry once thrived. Since the beginning of the 1991 conflict, however, official mining and tourism have stopped.

Trade. Besides the cash crops listed above, illegally smuggled diamonds have become a dominant item of trade. High in value only to foreign countries, they have played a major part in subsidizing the rebellion that has spread across Sierra Leone. International marketers who bought them came to recognize their own role in inadvertently funding the conflict, and publicly renounced any dealing in Sierra Leonean diamonds. Yet small and easily concealed, Sierra Leonean diamonds are now simply carried across national borders where they are sold to the same international marketers as "Liberian" or "Guinean" in origin.

Division of Labor. Like most big cities, Sierra Leone's urban areas offer a variety of occupational specialties, especially in small-scale trading, government, and industry. Downturns in the national economy, however, have made full-time salaried jobs extremely hard to procure, especially if one's family is not well connected. Village-level occupations are dominated by farming, but include traders, hunters, midwives, marketers, religious specialists, educators, policemen, and blacksmiths. Young men aged eighteen to twenty-nine are often attracted to mining jobs and the idea of "striking it rich," but the poor and exploitative conditions of the work often make their ventures short or seasonal, lasting between a few months and several years.

Social Stratification

Classes and Castes. Sierra Leonean society is in some ways a stratified one. The traditional elite families are those who can trace descent (usually through the father's line) to a warrior or hunter who first settled in the area. These families then control and administer land, a valuable asset in a

A thatched hut stands in a village on the south coast of Sierra Leone. Such traditional buildings stay cooler than those with zinc roofs and cement walls and floors but require more maintenance.
A thatched hut stands in a village on the south coast of Sierra Leone. Such traditional buildings stay cooler than those with zinc roofs and cement walls and floors but require more maintenance.
subsistence society, which puts them in an advantageous relationship to non-landholders. People who want to acquire the right to farm must show respect to an elder from this family (usually, but not always, a male), who may then grant them use of the land.

Colonial administrators in some ways exacerbated these differences between people, by favoring those elite families who supported their agenda with urban employment opportunities, political appointments, and education.

Symbols of Social Stratification. Some Sierra Leoneans will claim that one of the most persistent and negative impacts of colonialism was to pass along a taste for Western values and European goods, and the belief that anything African is relatively inferior. Thus one indicator of a high social status is the accumulation and display of Western accoutrements: Western clothing, English speech, satellite television, and Mercedes-Benz cars (or increasingly, sport-utility vehicles).

Political Life

Government. Under the terms of the constitution, executive power is vested in the president, who is directly elected by the people. The president appoints a cabinet of ministers, responsible for various government departments. There is also multiparty legislative power vested in an eighty-member Parliament, whose members are elected to five-year terms. Paramount chiefs serve in "District Councils," which in turn elect representatives to the legislature. Finally, there is a system of courts with a chief justice as head.

Leadership and Political Officials. Sierra Leone's political customs are often referred to as "patrimonial," in that elected officials become "patrons" to their voter base, the "clients." Clients expect patrons to share some of the benefits or entitlements of their office, and in return give them electoral support. This system became somewhat strained in the last thirty years of the twentieth century, as widespread political corruption drained many resources that would otherwise have been distributed. Yet in general, Sierra Leoneans respect almost any high-ranking official, regardless of political affiliation. Deference may be shown upon meeting with a slight bow, formal speech, and supporting the right arm with the left when shaking hands.

Social Problems and Control. In March 1991, an attack on a small southern village by a group of armed Sierra Leoneans, Liberians, and Burkinabes calling themselves the Revolutionary United Front (RUF) began what has become a nine-year civil conflict. Tens of thousands of people have lost their lives, and almost all of the population has at one time been displaced, either within or across national boundaries. Though initially supported by the National Patriotic Front of Liberia, the RUF later claimed its own populist political reform agenda to end corruption, reduce reliance on foreign aid, and usher in peace between all ethnic groups. Dramatic violence waged against innocent civilians, however, and the failure of government actions—including genuine political reforms and concessions granted to the RUF—to produce a consistent peace, has fueled popular skepticism about the legitimacy of RUF claims. Unlike conflicts in Europe or other parts of Africa, the Sierra Leone war has largely avoided ethnic divisiveness. Most analysts attribute the current violence to a mixture of war-inspired, socially marginalized youth fighting continued exclusion, and increased criminal control over the highly profitable, illicit diamond trade.

A problematic legacy of the war will certainly be the large number of guns and light weapons that have entered Sierra Leone since the breakup of the Soviet Union. Kalashnikov rifles, usually channeled into Sierra Leone by foreign arms merchants, can be bought for several dollars. Their widespread prevalence coupled with the intense poverty of the country is a virtual guarantee that extortion, highway banditry, and attacks on civilians will remain a dire social problem for years to come.

Military Activity. Sierra Leone's military is currently attempting reorganization. There are an estimated forty-five thousand total combatants that previously made up the different factions of the war—ex-Sierra Leone army soldiers, civilian militias, and RUF rebels. Few of these have followed up on agreements made to disarm and return to civilian life. Nigeria maintains some troop presence in the country, and a force of over ten thousand United Nations peacekeepers is currently in place, although their mandate has proven somewhat limited.

Social Welfare and Change Programs

Steady economic decline coupled with rising international debt has severely limited Sierra Leone's ability to provide basic social welfare programs to its citizens. Smuggling, corruption, worldwide recession, and a large informal economy have all posed real problems to official attempts to remedy

Buyers and sellers at the Freetown open air market. Sierra Leone's economy is largely informal, and women dominate the food market.
Buyers and sellers at the Freetown open air market. Sierra Leone's economy is largely informal, and women dominate the food market.
the situation. Structural adjustment policies by the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank have often further exacerbated these problems by increasing the income disparity between people, and orienting the economy toward the repayment of loans rather than the subsidization of basic public services.

Nongovernmental Organizations and Other Associations

The state's declining ability to meet basic health, education, and welfare needs has meant a corresponding increase in the number and activities of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) in the country. There are a wide variety of local and international NGOs who compete for funding from international donors in order to implement projects in economic and infrastructural development, health and sanitation, agriculture, and education. Most of their programs are "vertical," so called because they are designed and funded by external agencies according to Western priorities. Since 1991, international relief agencies have become an even bigger presence, bringing aid to Sierra Leonean refugees and internally displaced people who have fled the violence surrounding their homes.

Gender Roles and Statuses

Division of Labor by Gender. Women are the backbone of Sierra Leonean labor. Men do the physically intense work of clearing fields and plowing swamps, but planting, harvesting, weeding, gathering wood, cooking, cleaning, marketing, and child care are duties often shouldered by women. Young children, especially girls, are encouraged to help their parents with minor household chores and farm work, and early in life take pride in their ability to contribute to the welfare of the household.

The Relative Status of Women and Men. The relative status of women is a bit paradoxical. On the surface, they seem to have low status—women technically live under the authority of the men they marry, have fewer legal rights, less formal education, and lower literacy rates. Yet in reality, women's relationship to men is more complementary than subordinate, due mostly to the considerable power and solidarity gained through the collective formed by the near universal membership in the women's Bundu or Sande societies.

Though some have pointed out that the women's societies stratify as much as they unify, others have noted how they provide substantial resources and skills that allow women to independently manage problems and control their lives. A society can, for example, autonomously determine laws that regulate proper social conduct and relations between genders, with codes as binding for men as they are for women. A girl's initiation gives her womanly status, allowing her to marry and bear children, activities which help her gain further prestige. A less tangible but important benefit is that society membership often enshrouds women with a certain mystique that confounds men, who become unable to explain the "womanly knowledge" and secrets over which the society presides.

Marriage, Family, and Kinship

Marriage. For all Sierra Leoneans, marriage is a mark of adult maturity and brings considerable prestige to both bride and groom. Specific customs vary by ethnic group and socioeconomic status, but usually begin when a man is able to assemble enough brideprice (often a mixture of money and fine cloth) to give to the prospective bride and her family. He may be able to amass this himself, but often has to ask his father and his father's brothers for support. Almost all marriages used to be arranged between families, sometimes while the girl was still quite young. Increasingly, "love marriages" are more common, especially among those who have been to school.

Domestic Unit. The basic household structure is an extended family, organized for the majority of people around the farm and its rice production. Many households are polygynous, where a husband may have more than one wife; the first or "senior" wife usually has some authority over "junior" wives, such as in training and organizing them into a functional unit. Monogamy is also common, especially among urban and Christian families. Sierra Leoneans love children, and larger households tend to have more prestige. Having many children is in fact an investment of sorts, which, though initially expensive to maintain, eventually allows a family to accumulate wealth by creating a large and diverse labor pool, by gaining brideprice for its daughters, and by strategically marrying off children to create new alliances with other families.

Inheritance. Inheritance laws most often favor the male heirs. Upon the death of a male household head, rights of inheritance usually pass first to his eldest living brother. This is most often land and personal property, but may even include the deceased's wives, if they are willing, and any young children. If there are no living brothers, inheritance passes to the eldest adult son. There are exceptions to this, most notably among the coastal Sherbro women, who may be heads of households, village chiefs, or even lineage heads; it is not unusual in these circumstances for women to become trustees of land or property.

Kin Groups. Kinship networks are extremely important in everyday matters, in that one is obligated to assist one's family members throughout life. The majority of people are patrilineal, and so sons (and sometimes daughters) usually obtain rights to land through their father's side. Kin groups also play an important part in hearing legal cases and settling disputes before they are referred to a neutral third party. Thus, upon marriage, a man and a woman may each prefer to settle near their own kin, as this confers them distinct political and economic advantages. Though rights and responsibilities exist on both sides of one's family, maternal uncles are often particularly important figures, offering both obligations and entitlements to an individual.

A colonial period house in Freetown, Sierra Leone.
A colonial period house in Freetown, Sierra Leone.

Socialization

Infant Care. Mothers carry infants close to them at all times, strapped to their backs by a brightly colored cloth or lappa . Babies are breast-fed on demand, often for well over a year, although solid foods, usually rice pap, may be introduced at a young age. Both the extended family and the community share responsibility in rearing infants and children. It is not even unusual for a mother to "give" her child to a trusted friend or relative, though she of course would still play an active part in the child's life.

Child Rearing and Education. Providing they can afford school fees, most parents will try to send their children to at least several years of formal schooling. This is often Western-style education, although Arabic schools are an option in many areas. Outside the formal system, the men's and women's societies have historically provided important instruction for proper behavior—boys may learn the arts of proper male social conduct, including conflict mediation and forest survival; girls similarly learn crucial social, household, and childbearing skills to prepare them for womanhood. Traditionally this instruction could last more than a year; increasingly, however, pressures from school and urban environments have shortened this time to a month or less.

Higher Education. Many schools outside Freetown (both primary and secondary) have been closed since the beginning of the 1991 conflict. There has thus arisen some social concern over what the effects may be of a generation raised without access to formal education. This is one advantage recognized by refugees who have crossed over into Guinea and Liberia—relief agencies usually provide free schooling for refugee children and youth.

Etiquette

Sierra Leoneans as a rule are extremely polite and manner-conscious. Much attention is given, especially in urban areas, to one's neatness of dress and style of presentation. Courteous and eloquent greetings are a way of life. Elders are especially respected. The "good" host is always a giving host, one who will call any passerby to join in a meal by a wholehearted, "Come, let's eat." It is polite as a guest to leave some food on the plate, thanking the host profusely for his or her generosity.

Churchgoers outside a church in Freetown. About 10 percent of the population is Christian, but Christians sometimes continue to observe indigenous religious customs.
Churchgoers outside a church in Freetown. About 10 percent of the population is Christian, but Christians sometimes continue to observe indigenous religious customs.

Religion

Religious Beliefs. Reports often list Sierra Leoneans as 60 percent Muslim, 10 percent Christian, and 30 percent "indigenous believers." These kinds of numbers often mask the degree to which religious beliefs in Sierra Leone may be flexible and accommodating. One can go to a Christian church on Sunday, for example, and still make a sacrifice to one's ancestors for good fortune. Likewise, Muslim rituals may appear to dominate in some areas, yet these can become mixed with indigenous ideas or customs.

Religious Practitioners. Besides Muslim and Christian holy leaders, there are a number of indigenous religious practitioners who are able to mediate with the spirit world. These include diviners, healers, men's and women's society elders, and witchcraft specialists.

Rituals and Holy Places. Churches, mosques, and society clearings in the forest or town occupy central positions in Sierra Leonean religious life and serve as focal points for organizing religious activities, especially toward God or ancestral spirits. Water is often considered especially important and many religious rituals take place near the edges of lakes, rivers, or streams.

Death and the Afterlife. Specific burial customs may vary by region or religion, yet practically all of them encompass a firm conviction in the existence of God and the spirit world, and especially in the abilities of one's deceased ancestors to intervene in the activities of everyday life. Sacrifices, ritual remembrances, and prayer are made in order enlist ancestors' support and good favor.

Medicine and Health Care

The United Nations estimates that Sierra Leone has the highest death rate in the world, and the second highest infant morality rate (195 out of every 1,000 infants die within a year of birth). Life expectancy at birth in 1995 was only 34.1 years, down significantly from previously improving figures.

Even factoring in war-related violence, malaria is still the number one health threat. Schistosomiasis, bloody diarrhea, tetanus, measles, and polio are also endemic in some areas. Access to clean drinking water and adequate sanitation, especially in the rural countryside, is limited.

Medical facilities are extremely strained and are continuing to decline, especially since the 1991 conflict began. Yet even before this, the centrally organized national health service reached only an estimated 35 percent of the population, with less than 1 percent of annual government expenditures being allocated to health care. There are also an array of widely used indigenous practitioners, including midwives, broken-bone specialists, herbalists, society leaders, and Muslim-based ritual specialists.

Secular Celebrations

Outside of the major Muslim and Christian holidays, Sierra Leoneans also celebrate New Year's Day (1 January), National Independence Day (27 April), Labor Day (1 May), and National Day (9 August).

The Arts and Humanities

Support for the Arts. Government funding for the arts has been extremely limited and most artists are self-supported.

Literature. There are rich and lively traditions of storytelling across Sierra Leone. The most famous storytellers (sometimes endearingly called "liars") can manage to earn a living from their trade, though mostly these traditions are informal affairs, and start when children gather around an elder under the full moon once the evening chores are done. There are also critically acclaimed Sierra Leonean novels, such as The Last Harmattan of Alusine Dunbar , by Syl Cheney-Coker (Heinmann Books).

Graphic Arts. Among the graphic arts practiced in Sierra Leone are woodcarving, tie-dyeing, batik-printing, textile and fabric design, and basket making.

Performance Arts. A few famous Sierra Leonean musicians have gained widespread appeal both at home and abroad, such as "S. E. Rogers," "Calendar," "Dr. Oloh," and "Salliah." There is even a national dance troupe that travels around the world. To a large extent, however, participation in the arts is widely diffused and informal; dancing, painting, singing, storytelling, tie-dying, weaving, and drumming are widely practiced skills, the learning for which is often begun in childhood.

The State of the Physical and Social Sciences

Fourah Bay College (now the University of Sierra Leone) was the first university in West Africa, and was historically one of the centers for African scholars of law, medicine, and education. Its operation is currently severely strained, however, from inadequate funds, decaying infrastructure, and poorly paid professors. Several teachers' colleges around the country have similarly become either strained or closed, especially since the 1991 conflict.

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Jambai, Amara, and C. MacCormack. "Maternal Health, War, and Religious Tradition: Authoritative Knowledge in Pujehun District, Sierra Leone." In R. Davis-Floyd and C. Sargent, eds., Childbirth across Cultures: The Social Production of Authoritative Knowledge , 1996.

Joko Smart, H. M. "Recent Trends in Law Reform in Sierra Leone." Journal of African Law 31 (1/2): 136– 150, 1987.

Kallon, Kelfala. The Economics of Sierra Leonean Entrepreneurship , 1990.

Kandeh, Borbor Sama. "Causes of Infant and Early Childhood Deaths in Sierra Leone." Social Science and Medicine 23 (3): 297–303, 1986.

Kandeh, Jimmy. "Politicization of Ethnic Identities in Sierra Leone." African Studies Review 35 (2): 81–99, 1992.

Kargbo, Thomas. "Traditional Midwifery in Sierra Leone." In Una Maclean, Christopher Fyfe, eds., African Medicine in the Modern World , 1987.

——. Rainforest Relations: Gender and Resource Use among the Mende of Gola, Sierra Leone , 1994.

Luke, David F., and Stephen Riley. "The Politics of Economic Decline in Sierra Leone." Journal of Modern African Studies 27 (1): 133–141, 1989.

MacCormack, Carol. "Mende and Sherbro Women in High Office." Canadian Journal of African Studies 6(2): 151–164, 1972.

Margai, Sir Milton. "Welfare Work in a Secret Society." African Affairs 47: 227–230, 1948.

Reno, William. Corruption and State Politics in Sierra Leone , 1992.

——. Fighting for the Rain Forest: War, Youth, and Resources in Sierra Leone , 1996.

Richards, Paul, Ibrahim Abdullah, Joseph Amara, Patrick Muana, Teddy Stanley, and James Vincent. "Reintegration of War-Affected Youth and Ex-Combatants: A Study of the Social and Economic Opportunity Structure in Sierra Leone." Report prepared for the Sierra Leone Ministry of National Reconstruction, 1996.

United Nations. World Development Report , 1998.

United Nations Secretariat. World Population Prospects: The 1998 Revision , Vol. 1: Comprehensive Tables, 1998.

White, Frances. Sierra Leone's Settler Women Traders: Women on the Afro-European Frontier , 1987.

Zack-Williams, A. B. "Sierra Leone: Crisis and Despair." Review of African Political Economy 49: 22–33, 1990.

—M. D OUGLAS H ENRY



User Contributions:

kk
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May 10, 2008 @ 1:13 pm
THIS IS A VERY INFORMATIONAL PAGE THIS HELPED ME SO MUCH ON MY REPORT AND PROJECT ON SIERRA LEONE AND I PICKED YOUR COUNTRY BECAUSE I THOUGHT IT WAS VERY INTERESTING..AND IT IS!!!
James
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Sep 12, 2008 @ 9:09 am
Great Information. I was lucky enough to have just taken my personal African Ancestry DNA test and found out I was a match 100% to the Temne people of Sierra Leone. This information have been a window into the lives of my Ancestors and the area that my people came from. For someone who has never been able to identify the origin of my people before, its amazing to be able to research and learn. Thanks you!
aaron
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Oct 22, 2008 @ 2:14 pm
im so happy that i found this if i did not i would fail english=)
me
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Nov 10, 2008 @ 6:18 pm
This information just saved me, I never would of finisihed me geography project without it! :D
Chris
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Nov 11, 2008 @ 3:15 pm
This page was perfect for me. My French class is putting on a World Fair, and I was set to work on Sierra Leone. All of the info on this page was wonderful and helped a ton.
c.c
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Feb 8, 2009 @ 6:06 am
thank god i found this site.i would hav stuggled wif my assignment.
Hamid
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Feb 16, 2009 @ 4:04 am
It is a good article on the culture of sierra leone and I think it reflect the country's true cultural make up. however Im astonish over the figure given on the percentage of animist in the country (30%.

I have lived through-out the country but i didn't perceive there are that many animist in sierra leone. i'm highly suspicious about the accuracy on that figure.
Amber
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Feb 24, 2009 @ 7:19 pm
This was a load of help!!without it i would surely fail my project!!
zhane`
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Mar 19, 2009 @ 7:19 pm
This a very helpful website. It gives you everything right here. There is truly no need to go to any other website because all of it is right here.!!!!!! =]
Ciera
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May 11, 2009 @ 11:23 pm
This was the MOST useful site i have used for my project on Sierra Leone. THANKS SO MUCH!!!
kj
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Aug 20, 2009 @ 4:04 am
this helped me so much sierra leone is the best ountry in the world
Fatmata
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Nov 20, 2009 @ 7:19 pm
Thank you so much, u saved my grade for my Nursing class.
maddie(:
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Dec 6, 2009 @ 1:13 pm
this article helped so much. I haven't had much luck finding information and as soon as i clicked on this site i knew i had the info i needed :) how sappy...
Mimi Omokri
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Dec 9, 2009 @ 10:10 am
This is very informative but quite dated.Anyways it was enlightening...didnt read anything about the food and all that
janice
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Dec 15, 2009 @ 3:15 pm
this page helped me alot in my school work and is a great resorce to go on to get info on sierra leone.
Fatima
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Dec 17, 2009 @ 6:18 pm
This page was such a big help without it i wouldnt have been able to do my project. all the other pages are no help. It is a GREAT rescource. Thank You to whomever helped make it.
habiba
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Dec 26, 2009 @ 7:07 am
Hi
I have always been facinated by West African history,am from East Africa,i picked interest about Serra Leonne after meeting a couple of people from there"now we are friends for life'' the article has helped me to understand their zeel for certain things and British names.(no offence intented)
Paloma
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Jan 4, 2010 @ 10:22 pm
this information saved me i couldn't have finished my social studies project
jamal
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Jan 18, 2010 @ 4:16 pm
this website is a life saver i could not find anything on Sierra Leone but thanks to you guys I got an A+ on my test thanks keep doing what your doing. Many kids are thankful. =) !
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Feb 6, 2010 @ 7:19 pm
great 4 research paper i had to do on sierra leone. thanks so much i would have failed so badly if not 4 this page
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Feb 16, 2010 @ 12:12 pm
I don`t even know what to say , because it`s so soul touching and beautiful .It is like a fairy palace in a fairy land . I am proud to be a sierra leonean .to be a part of this rich and preserved land. How i wish to stay in it forever . i love you MAMA SALONE
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Feb 24, 2010 @ 3:15 pm
i was finally able to finish my geography project i was woring 5 weeks on
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Mar 2, 2010 @ 7:19 pm
I had a project due and i couldnt have done it without you
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Mar 10, 2010 @ 5:17 pm
ahhh this just saved my global studies project! thank youuu!
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May 4, 2010 @ 6:18 pm
my uncle mohama is from here! so i chose this country because it is for my country report!
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May 11, 2010 @ 3:15 pm
This is one of the most useful information I have ever bumped into concerning sierra Leonean culture and tradition
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May 20, 2010 @ 12:12 pm
thanks to this site. i found everything that i needed. now i went back up to an A.. yay :)
jo
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Jun 1, 2010 @ 3:03 am
i never would have finished my geogrphy profect in time if it wernt 4 ur website
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Jun 8, 2010 @ 6:18 pm
James, I just learn that I my DNA is a 100% match for the Temne people of Sierra Leone. This inforamation has been helpful.
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Oct 1, 2010 @ 6:18 pm
Thanks for ur endorvour and God bless Sierra Leone
julius
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Oct 20, 2010 @ 6:06 am
The mission trip my wife & others took to sierra-leone arose the curiosity in me to check this piece of information on net alas,i found it very interesting & discover that there some similarities with my country-NIGERIA. julius
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Nov 25, 2010 @ 2:02 am
How can I get A Visa of Sierra Leone? I like to visit and am Rwandan lives in Rwanda as well

Thanks
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Dec 9, 2010 @ 1:13 pm
Hello, I am curious about when was this article written?

Thank you for your time.
blops
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Dec 12, 2010 @ 2:14 pm
da best! my SAP project is infinitely better than it would have been without this page :)
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Jan 3, 2011 @ 11:11 am
I think its necessary for sierraleonean to know thier History
blah :)
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Feb 8, 2011 @ 8:08 am
This information is so helpful.. Thank you SOOO much for sharing this :)
Katie Ferguson
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Feb 8, 2011 @ 12:12 pm
more information on Sierra Leone for Global Studies project on Sierra Leone accessed 2.8.11
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Feb 10, 2011 @ 12:12 pm
i love my country and thanks for the article. by the way im mende and i never kno mush about my country and mende but you make me kno now thanks for that
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Feb 10, 2011 @ 1:13 pm
i love my country and thanks for the article. by the way im mende and i never kno mush about my country and mende but you make me kno now thanks for that.and this article helps me in my projiect about sierra leone ...sierra leone is da best country to live in i will always love or like sierra leone
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Feb 19, 2011 @ 11:11 am
I just wanted to say that i love this web site, due to the fact that i'm from sierra leone as well and that i'm also from Senegal. This website teach me a lots about my country and there were some stuff that i didn't know before.
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Feb 20, 2011 @ 10:10 am
According to family history and DNA testing, my people came from Sierra Leone over eight generations ago. I sought info on our ancient homeland, and landed on this page. Kept in rapt attention for a long time, I read the page from top to bottom. Funny, we keep a few of these traditions, even after all this time. Foods we keep on hand, eating for nourishment and comfort from grandma's ever on, I found on your listing. Thank you for posting this research. It was enlightening.
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Mar 10, 2011 @ 8:08 am
I am a graduate student at Pannasatra University of Cambodia, conducting project for master cause compare social capital in Cambodia, Nigeria, Sierra Leone and Thailand so that, can you send me full history of Sierra Leone and social capital information
Felesha
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Mar 16, 2011 @ 9:09 am
Great information! I didnt even have to use another site! Thanks so much=)
Troll
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Mar 21, 2011 @ 7:07 am
It really needs more about colonization :C That's what I really need to have in my project. And I swear this is the same exact artical as PowerSearch >_>
L Peezy
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Mar 22, 2011 @ 9:21 pm
Thank God for this site it helped alot with my geography project all the information was right at my finger tips! :)
Debbie
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Apr 4, 2011 @ 1:13 pm
I'm glad to have stumbled on this site as it has improved my knowledge of sierra leone. My mother is a sierraleonean from makeni, and i have always wanted to know more about her heritage n stuffs, this site does it in an interesting way. I was glad to see familiar words like lappa,kisi,krio some of which are mentioned in our home. Now,i know a few more things about salone,thanks to you.
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Apr 8, 2011 @ 9:09 am
this is very useful it helped a lot but i need information on important people over there if u have anything let m know
Madison
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Apr 27, 2011 @ 9:09 am
This information was great it helped me so much on my project. Thank you so much!
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May 9, 2011 @ 10:22 pm
i dont learn about sierra leone, sierra leone learns about me

come at me bro
Amanda
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Jul 17, 2011 @ 5:17 pm
Fantastic an enjoyable read - I am shortly visiting and I found it extremely helpful thank you.
Ro Msa
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Jul 31, 2011 @ 12:12 pm
I have been doing extensive research on Sierra Leone and this site has given me very valuable information. Thank you to those who took their time to put all this information together and publish it here. I am from Southern Africa and I found it interesting on how many beliefs and rituals we share as Africans... Thank you once again
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Aug 7, 2011 @ 7:19 pm
family ancestry information has been very informative.It helps to know your past so that you can appreciate your future.
Rachel
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Oct 16, 2011 @ 7:19 pm
this is so helpful thx!!!:D and my assignment has to be like 15 sheets long!!!
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Nov 4, 2011 @ 8:08 am
I love this website because it tells me more about my beloved country sierra leone.
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Nov 19, 2011 @ 11:11 am
Yes still sierra Leone need helps especially for those in school so please my people let help the poor students in sierra Leone please
ABX
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Nov 30, 2011 @ 10:22 pm
Hey, does anyone know their personal appearance? I'm doing a report on Sierra Leone. If anyone of u knows what this means, please help me! also, this website is awesome! use is folks!
Marissa
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Dec 7, 2011 @ 8:20 pm
This website helped soo much! But I needed to know about their clothing styles, so maybe that's something you could put on the website for future reference!
Thank you! (:
adrien dunacn
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Dec 26, 2011 @ 8:08 am
I am so glad to know my ancestors come from sierra leone my niece did some research on ancestors.com now i know where i come from i am truly grateful to know that i am of african heritage that my great great great great grandmother was a sierra leone women
sookie
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Jan 1, 2012 @ 12:12 pm
am searching for my family history. I just found out my great grandad, my mums grand dad was white british settlers in seirra-leone years and years ago. maybe about going back sixty seventy years ago. my great grandad was called "parker rogers" johnny or john. i want to trace my family history can u help me?
nya
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Feb 12, 2012 @ 9:09 am
i think it was helpful but could have offered more . for instance , you could tell more about gdp , ethnic groups, climate, physical features, resoures, imports and expoerts, languages spoken, and literacy rate. thanks.
knowledge is power
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Mar 22, 2012 @ 6:18 pm
i really liked the fact that your wrote this with some sensitivity to the locals without writing and agenda that is very different to the understanding by locals. thank you for being respectful to the indigenous culture and integrating gender and non-western perspectives. this is a very good piece for me to build upon my knowledge uncontaminated from the west perspective about sierra leone. i was not aware that the western agenda was promoted through arabs.
???????
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Mar 27, 2012 @ 2:14 pm
This is a very well described article of Sierra Leone. I may not reveal myself but I do say that this is interesting. Thank you for making this. I have saved time on researching the web for info for my report. Thanks again!
precious
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May 8, 2012 @ 6:06 am
very educative,i would like to know more about their fashion,clothing styles.
sophza
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May 13, 2012 @ 12:12 pm
Thank you so much for the bit about gender division. It's been so hard to find info on that!
Dr. Hashina Begum
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May 25, 2012 @ 1:01 am
Thanks to all the contributor of this article! Me and my family is planning to move Sierra Leone for the job at UNFPA. I learnt many of the basic information that is necessary to know before visiting a new country. It is really very helpful.
Sussy
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Jun 24, 2012 @ 7:07 am
AM happy for the information provided and am now aware of the sierra leon culture and food.
doug henry
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Jun 27, 2012 @ 11:11 am
This article needs updating! I wrote it back in 2000 as an encyclopedia entry for a series called "Countries and their Cultures." The facts about the war, and the military, are definitely out of date!! Also, the original article has a lot of "Thank-you's" to the Sierra Leoneans who gave me their input and advice!
-dh.
Brosef
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Aug 13, 2012 @ 4:16 pm
This website is DOPE! I couldn't have gotten an A without it!
Rennell
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Aug 18, 2012 @ 12:00 am
I have taken my personal African Ancestry DNA Test and found out that my ancestry are "Mende People". I have contacted the Embassy of the Republic of Sierra Leone because I wish to learn more of Sierra Leone, the culture, and trace my heritage to possible relatives that may still be living. Reading these articles have made me more aware of Sierra Leone's strive to gain their independence and the struggle they are faced with today. I will one day visit my "Mother Country".rk
Christiana B. Bona
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Oct 3, 2012 @ 2:02 am
Thank very much for this article, its makes me learn more about my country┬┤s histoy :-)
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Nov 12, 2012 @ 1:13 pm
thanks for such great information, GOOD JOB -Kenyan
not telling
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Jan 10, 2013 @ 11:11 am
thanks i would have faild 8 th grade if not for this
SMH
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Jan 28, 2013 @ 10:22 pm
THANKS, THIS ARTICLE HAS BEEN OF GREAT HELP IN MY RESEARCH
Jane
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Feb 7, 2013 @ 4:16 pm
Reshearch. On culture in Sierra leone communication social role personal space
meme
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Mar 7, 2013 @ 9:09 am
good resorce.also i think this is realyy good for us children.
edralyn padua
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Jun 21, 2013 @ 4:04 am
I really love this..it helps me in my homeworks..In English subject
Tanya Asapansa-Johnson
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Jul 20, 2013 @ 4:16 pm
I am currently looking for displaced family members who have since Sierra Leone After the war. They lived above a bank in Freetown.
Amy
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Sep 12, 2013 @ 7:19 pm
I have a woman working for me that lived in Freetown, Sierra Leone until 2006. This website helped me to have a better undersanding of her culture and who she is at the core. Thank you.
mara
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Oct 23, 2013 @ 10:10 am
please compare the religious festivals and non religion festivals in sierra Leone
sohail ahmed
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Dec 18, 2013 @ 3:03 am
i visit sieraleon in 1997 for one year in tableegh. good people simple life style .
Alie Bayoh
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Jan 1, 2014 @ 4:04 am
This page is not just important but indispensable for our development. History helps us to identify the type of development people need in any society in the world.
Yealie
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Jan 7, 2014 @ 6:18 pm
Thanks so much this helped me so much in my research. Much love May Allah bless you greatly for this.
alaina
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Jan 17, 2014 @ 10:10 am
Thanks so much! My social studies teacher assigned me to the country seirra leone and this page has all that i need! truly greatful!
Tomvin Tucker
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Feb 4, 2014 @ 5:17 pm
This page has help me to complete my project about Sierra Leone
David Lahai
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Feb 7, 2014 @ 9:09 am
This page have help me to start writing my project on culture and defiance in Sierra Leone. Thanks so much
mohammed
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Mar 15, 2014 @ 12:12 pm
this artical gave me a hundred on the project thenks to u i passed
angel
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Apr 24, 2014 @ 6:18 pm
it was so much work thans to this i would have failed my project

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