Identification. São Tomé e Príncipe is the second smallest country in the Organization of African Unity.
Identification. The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (in Arabic, al-Mamlaka al-Arabiya as-Saudiya) occupies most of the Arabian Peninsula, the original homeland of the Arab people and of Islam.
Historically, Scotland was referred to as Caledonia and by the Gaelic name Alba.
Identification. The area that today is Senegal once was part of the West African Empire of Mali, Ghana, and Tekrur.
Identification. The name Yugoslavia previously designated six republics (Serbia, Montenegro, Macedonia, Bosnia-Herzogovia, Croatia, and Slovenia), but now includes just Serbia and Montenegro.
Identification. The name "Seychelles" derives from the 1756 French expedition that led to the annexation of the islands.
Identification. The name "Sierra Leone" dates back to 1462, when Portuguese explorer Pedro da Cintra, sailing down the West African coast, saw the tall mountains rising up on what is now the Freetown Peninsula and called them the "Lion Mountains," or "Serra Lyoa." Successive visits by English sailors and later British colonization modified the name to "Sierra Leone." Despite distinctive regional variations in language and local traditions, Sierra Leoneans today are united by many factors, such as their shared lingua franca Krio, widespread membership in men's and women's social associations and societies, and even sporting events, especially when the national football (soccer) team plays.
Identification. The place name "Singapore" is derived from Singa-pura ("City of the Lion"), a commonly used term since the fourteenth century.
Identification. "Slovak" is derived from the Slovakian term for Slav: Slovan.
Slovenia is officially known as the Republic of Slovenia and called Slovenija by its residents.
Melanesia; Melanesians; Wantoks ("one people," people from the Melanesian region sharing certain characteristics, especially the use of pidgin English).
Identification. Somalia was known to the ancient Egyptians as the Land of Punt.
Identification. South Africa is the only nation-state named after its geographic location; there was a general agreement not to change the name after the establishment of a constitutional nonracial democracy in 1994.
Location and Geography. Spain occupies about 85 percent of the Iberian peninsula, with Portugal on its western border.
Identification. The official name of the nation is the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka.
In Arabic, it is called Jumhuriyat as-Sudan, or simply as-Sudan.
Identification. The name "Suriname" (Sranan, Surinam) may be of Amerindian origin.
Identification. The Swazi nation is named for Mswati II, who became king in 1839.
Identification. The people who came to be called Swedes were mentioned by the Roman historian Tacitus in 98 C.E.
Switzerland is a federation of twenty-six states called cantons (six are considered half cantons). There are four linguistic regions: German-speaking (in the north, center, and east), French-speaking (in the west), Italian-speaking (in the south), and Romansh-speaking (a small area in the southeast).
Identification. Syria is the name that was given to the region by the Greeks and Romans and probably derives from the Babylonian suri.
Identification. Over four-fifths of the people are descendants of Han Chinese settlers who came to the island in the seventeenth through nineteenth centuries from southeastern China.
Identification. It is said that the mainland portion of what is now Tanzania was named by a British civil servant in 1920, from the Swahili words tanga (sail) and nyika (bright arid plain).
Identification. The name "Thailand" is associated with the dominant ethnic group, Thai.