Maya



PRONUNCIATION: MY-yuh

LOCATION: Southeastern Mexico; Guatemala; Belize; Honduras; El Salvador

POPULATION: About 8–10 million

LANGUAGE: Spanish; English; various Mayan dialects

RELIGION: "Folk Catholicism"; evangelical Christianity

1 • INTRODUCTION

Today's Maya are descended from one of the great civilizations of the Americas. They live in the same regions of Mexico, Guatemala, Belize, El Salvador, and Honduras as their ancestors and retain many of their ancient traditions. Mayan history reaches back some 4,000 years to what is called the Preclassic period, when civilization first began in Central America. However, it was during what came to be known as the Classic period—from roughly AD 250 to 900—that Mayan culture reached its peak and the Maya achieved their celebrated advances in architecture, mathematics, agriculture, astronomy, art, and other areas.

They built spectacular temples and palaces, developed several calendars—including one reaching back to 13 August, 3114 BC —and evolved a numerical system capable of recording a number that today would be expressed as 142 followed by 36 zeros. They developed a complex system of writing and, beginning in 50 BC , were the first people in the Western hemisphere to keep written historical records. Around AD 900 the construction of buildings and stelae—stone slabs inscribed with names and dates—ceased abruptly, and the advanced lowland civilization of the Maya collapsed, creating a mystery that has fascinated scholars for many years. Possible causes that have been proposed include warfare, drought, famine, and disease.

The Spanish campaign to subdue the Maya and conquer their lands began around 1520 and ended nearly 200 years later when Tayasal, the last remaining Mayan region (in present-day Guatemala), fell to the conquistadors in 1697. The Spanish seized Mayan lands and enslaved their populations, sending many to labor in the mines of northern Mexico. In addition, thousands of Maya died of diseases spread by the Europeans, especially smallpox. During the first half of the nineteenth century, the Central American lands won their independence from Spain, but the lives of the Maya did not improve. They labored on vast tobacco, sugarcane, and henequen plantations, in virtual slavery enforced by their continuing debt to the landowners. In the Yucatán, many joined in a protracted rebellion called the Caste War that lasted from 1847 to 1901.

After the revolution of 1910, the Maya in Mexico gained increased legal rights and better educational and job opportunities. However, a steep drop in world prices for henequen—the "green gold" from which twine was made—turned the Yucatán from one of Mexico's richest regions to one of its poorest. In Guatemala, the disenfranchisement and poverty of the Maya—comprising roughly half the population—continued unchanged into the twentieth century. Since the 1970s, political violence has forced many Maya to flee to Mexico, where they remain as refugees. In Chiapas, Maya of the Tzeltal and Tzotzil tribes took part in the Zapatista uprising of January 1994.

2 • LOCATION

The modern Maya live in southeastern Mexico and northern Central America, including Guatemala, Belize, Honduras, and El Salvador. Altogether, their homelands cover an area of approximately 125,000 square miles (323,750 square kilometers) with a varied terrain that encompasses both northern lowlands and southern highlands. Volcanic mountains dominate the highlands. The fertile soil of the highland valleys supports the largest segment of the Maya population. While many Maya have settled in cities—particularly Merida and Cancún—and adopted an urban lifestyle, most remain rural dwellers.

Reliable figures for the total number of Maya are unavailable. Estimates range upward from 4 million. The true figure is probably between 8 and 10 million, including about half of Guatemala's total population of 10 million, close to 2 million Maya in the Mexican Yucatán, and additional numbers in Mexico's Chiapas state, as well as Belize, Honduras, and El Salvador. Among the larger individual groups are about 750,000 Quiché (K'iche') in the midwestern highlands of Guatemala; 445,000 or more Cakchiquel in several Guatemalan departments (provinces); and over 500,000 Mam in southwestern Guatemala and southeastern Chiapas.

3 • LANGUAGE

Most Maya today speak Spanish. The two Mayan languages of the Classic period, Yucatecan and Cholan, have subdivided into about thirty separate languages, some of which are not mutually intelligible. The most widely spoken are Mam, Quiché, Kekchí, and Cakchiquel. Advocates of Mayan cultural autonomy protest against the relegation of their indigenous languages to limited use, often in remote rural areas, while Spanish remains the language of government, education, the church, and the media. The following example is drawn from a creation myth in the Popol Vuh, the Mayan holy book:

Keje k'ut xax k'o wi ri kaj nay puch, u K'ux Kaj.

Are ub'i ri k'ab'awil, chuch'axik.

Translation:

And of course there is the sky, and there is also the Heart of Sky.

This is the name of the god, as it is spoken.

4 • FOLKLORE

The greatest body of Mayan tradition is contained in the Popol Vuh, an ancient text first transcribed into Latin and later translated into Spanish that preserves both sacred and secular lore. According to its creation myth, the gods made three different attempts at creating human beings before they had a version they were satisfied with. The first beings, which were made of mud, were destroyed because they had no brains. The next ones were made of wood and proved deficient because they were without emotions and thus could not properly praise their makers. Finally the correct material—maize (corn)—was found, and perfect beings were fashioned. Ultimately deciding to protect them by limiting the extent of their knowledge, the gods decided to damage their eyes so they could not see too much, and the resulting beings were the first Maya.

5 • RELIGION

The traditional religions of the Maya, in which astrology and ancestor worship both played a role, were based on a system of beliefs that included the world, the heavens, and an unseen underworld called Xibalba. When Spanish missionaries introduced Catholicism to their regions, the Maya tended to add it onto their existing religion, creating a unique brand of "folk Catholicism." Their traditional gods that belonged to the natural world, such as corn, rain, and the sun, became associated with Christian saints, and various rituals and festivals were transmuted into forms approved by the church.

Since the 1960s, evangelical Christianity, mostly promoted by churches in the southern United States, has been adopted by large segments of the Mayan population. Entire towns have embraced conservative forms of Protestantism, which have not proven as amenable as Catholicism to the retention of customs related to traditional folk religions, such as the use of alcohol in association with religious rituals or the retention of the sacred brotherhoods—known as cofradias in Guatemala and as cargos in Chiapas—which traditionally oversee village festivals and other aspects of civic life.

6 • MAJOR HOLIDAYS

Most holidays currently observed by the Maya are the holy days of the Christian calendar. Many of their observances, however, still have characteristics of the traditional nature worship of their ancestors. The most important celebrations are generally Holy Week (the week leading up to Easter in late March or early April) and Christmas (December 25). The Maya living in the Chamula region of Chiapas are known for their five-day Carnival celebration, called Crazy February, whose Christian significance (the period preceding Lent) coincides with the older observance of the five "Lost Days" at the end of the Maya solar calendar. Religious societies called cargos sponsor the festivities, which include ceremonial dances, feasting, processions, and ritual reenactments of both religious and historic events.

7 • RITES OF PASSAGE

Major life transitions (such as birth, puberty, and death) are marked by religious ceremonies, many of which combine Christian and ancestral traditions.

8 • RELATIONSHIPS

The religious societies known as cargos in Chiapas and cofradias in Guatemala have been an important vehicle of social cohesion among the Maya. Charged since colonial times with organizing Catholic religious festivals, they provided the means for the Maya to conform to the customs of their colonizers while privately preserving their own religion, traditions, and world-view. Mayan villages today have both civil and religious cargos, whose officials may ascend through a hierarchy of positions to ultimately become respected village elders, or principales .

9 • LIVING CONDITIONS

Housing varies among the different regions and groups of Maya. The Mam, who live in southwestern Guatemala and southeastern Chiapas, live in houses with adobe walls, small shuttered windows, roofs of tile or corrugated metal, and a floor of hard-packed dirt. The K'iche' in the Guatemalan highlands build rectangular houses with double-pitched tile roofs and walls of adobe, thatch supported by boards or poles, or other materials. Increasing numbers live in more modern homes built from brick or lumber with tin roofs.

Maya folk medicine includes the ministrations of ritual healers called curanderos and female herbalists who may double as midwives. Common cures include prayers, offerings, herbal remedies, and sweat-baths.

The main means of transport for most Maya is the bus. Buses in Maya areas may be crowded as early as 4:00 or 5:00 AM , often with people traveling from remote villages to the larger market towns. By late afternoon and evening there are fewer travelers on the road. Trains in the Maya regions—like those in many parts of Central and South America—are generally slow, old, and unreliable. In some areas, boats are used for public transportation.

10 • FAMILY LIFE

Both nuclear and extended families are found among the Maya. Couples generally marry in their late teens or early twenties. Traditionally, all marriages were arranged, but since the 1950s it has become increasingly common among some groups for young people to choose their own mates. In arranged marriages, contact may be initiated by the couple, followed by negotiation between the two families. Gifts are generally exchanged, and in some cases the bride's parents receive a payment to compensate them for having raised her. Couples often have both civil and religious ceremonies, and they may live with the groom's parents until their first child is born.

Family structure may alternate between nuclear and extended, with the addition of newly married couples who will eventually leave to establish their own homes, or elderly parents who come to live with the family when it becomes hard for them to manage on their own.

11 • CLOTHING

The Maya wear both modern Western-style clothing and traditional garb (although the latter is more commonly worn by women). Men generally wear trousers and sport shirts or guayaberas— dress shirts with decorative tucks worn outside the belt in place of a jacket. Women wear either traditional woven and embroidered clothing, or stylish dresses and skirt-and-blouse outfits. Traditional women's attire includes the huipil (plural: huipiles ), a long, sleeveless tunic; the quechquémitli, a shoulder cape; and the enredo, a wrap-around skirt. Maya garments are commonly decorated with elaborate and colorful embroidery. The designs, which include humans, animals, and plants, often have some religious significance, and every Maya group and village has its own distinctive patterns of decoration. The decorative designs for huipiles are often said to appear to women in their dreams. Men often wear the traditional tunics over store-bought shirts. Fajas are sashes that hold garments in place and also serve as pockets.

12 • FOOD

The Maya generally eat three meals a day: breakfast (el desayuno), lunch (la comida), and supper (la cena). Corn, the most important food of their ancestors, remains the central ingredient in their diet today and is used to make tortillas or tamales. After corn, beans (frijoles) are the most basic staple, served boiled, fried, or refried. Soups—many of them actually thick stews—form a large part of the Mayan diet. One of the most popular is lime soup (sopa de lima), made from chicken, limes, and a variety of spices.

Poultry forms the basis of many meals—either turkey, which is native to the region, or chicken, which was introduced by the Spanish. Plentiful seafood caught on the coasts of the Caribbean and Gulf of Mexico is also an important part of the diet. The Yucatán is known for its ceviche, a cold dish made with fish prepared with an acidic marinade (usually lime juice), served with onions, chiles, and cilantro. Popular desserts include flan (a custard introduced by the Spanish) and Torta del Cielo (Heavenly Cake), a cake made with rum, almonds, and ten eggs that is served at weddings and other special occasions.

One of the best-known foods of the Maya is Cochinita Pibil , a pork dish that dates back to pre-Columbian times, when it was made from wild boar cooked in a coal-filled pit. Domesticated pigs, introduced by the Spanish, have replaced the boar, but the dish is prepared with the same seasonings as it was in the past. A recipe for Cochinita Pibil is included in this entry.

13 • EDUCATION

The Maya are educated at either public or Catholic schools. In Guatemala, a half-dozen Catholic-run boarding schools are the main source of education for those wishing to progress beyond the basic education available in the villages. Maya concerned with preserving their traditions believe that the formal education available to them has caused them to lose touch with their own culture. The Guatemalan Academy of Maya Languages ( Academia de Lenguas Mayas ) leads a movement to preserve the languages of the Guatemalan Maya.

14 • CULTURAL HERITAGE

The Maya have preserved many aspects of their ancient culture, including their traditional clothing, folklore, agricultural techniques, family structure, language, and dance. Many elements of their ancient religions have also survived for centuries under the guise of Catholic religious observances.

15 • EMPLOYMENT

In rural areas, the Maya farm their maize fields, or milpas, much as their ancestors did thousands of years ago. Forested sites are converted into new fields by felling the trees and burning the brush (today known as "slash-and-burn" agriculture). Maize kernels are then planted into holes made with digging sticks. Where the ancient Maya used stone tools for clearing and hardened the end of the digging stick with fire, today's farmer uses a steel machete and metal-tipped stick. Because this type of agriculture rapidly depletes the soil, fields must be left fallow for periods ranging from seven to as many as twenty years. Besides farming, Maya also work as laborers and artisans or own small shops. In urban areas, they work in jobs involving textiles or computers, for example.

Recipe

Cochinita Pibil (Pork Marinade)

Ingredients

  • ¼ teaspoon ground pepper
  • ¼ teaspoon ground cumin
  • 5 cloves garlic, minced
  • ⅓ cup lime juice
  • 2 pounds lean pork, cut in 2-inch cubes
  • Banana leaves or aluminum foil
  • 1 small can chopped hot chilies
  • 1 teaspoon dried oregano
  • Sliced purple raw onions
  • 2 bay leaves, crushed
  • String

Directions

  1. Combine the pepper and the cumin with the minced garlic.
  2. Combine the garlic mixture with the lime juice, bay leaves, and oregano.
  3. Put the pork cubes in a large plastic bag and add the spice mixture. Seal and turn and shake the bag until the pork is well coated with the mixture. Marinate for at least 3 hours or overnight.
  4. Place banana leaves or aluminum foil on the bottom of a roasting pan. (Leaves or foil should drape over the sides of the pan.) Pour the pork cubes and the marinade onto the leaves (or foil).
  5. Top with chopped onions and chiles. Fold the leaves (or foil) over the meat. If using banana leaves, tie with string to secure. Preheat oven to 325° F . Cover the pan and bake for 1½ hours.

Serve with beans, salsa, and heated corn tortillas.

Adapted from Gerlach, Nancy, et al. Foods of the Maya. Freedom, Calif.: The Crossing Press, 1994.

16 • SPORTS

The ancient Maya played hip-ball, a game that involved keeping a hard rubber ball aloft with any part of the body other than the hands, head, or feet. In some regions, the ball had to be hit through a set of stone rings. Soccer is popular among the Maya of today.

17 • RECREATION

Sunday afternoons after church are the most popular time for recreation. Most businesses are closed, and many people stroll the village streets or relax in local parks. Popular forms of musical entertainment include marimba teams and mariachi bands.

18 • CRAFTS AND HOBBIES

Maya women are famous for their weaving, often using locally handspun yarn and natural vegetable dyes. Using the pre-Columbian back-strap loom of their ancestors, they produce striped and plain white cloth for shawls, shirts, and children's clothes, some with designs that are over 1,200 years old. Colorful hammocks are woven from fine cotton string. Other craft items include both glazed and unglazed pottery, ceremonial wooden masks, and goods woven from palm, straw, reeds, and sisal.

For centuries, traditional Maya dances have been preserved by the religious men's fraternities called cofradias. These dances were performed for both ceremonial and entertainment purposes. The Pop Wuj dance depicts the four stages of humankind's development: the Man of Mud, who is destroyed because he does not recognize the gods; the Man of Wood, who is too rigid and ultimately burns; the Monkey Man, who is too silly; and the Human Being, who respects and prays to the gods. The K'iche' Maya of Chichicastenango have a dance that centers around Sijolaj, a harvest king whom the Spaniards identified with St. Thomas.

19 • SOCIAL PROBLEMS

The Maya of Yucatán, like many other Mexicans, suffer from overpopulation, unemployment, and periods of political unrest. In Guatemala, Mayan farmers have been crowded onto mountainous areas with poor land, and laborers must work for extremely low wages. The most serious problem for the Maya in that country has been over two decades of violent political repression by the military and right-and left-wing death squads. Thousands have been murdered or "disappeared," and many have fled the country for Mexico or the United States.

The health of the Tzotzil and Tzeltal Maya of Chiapas has been compromised by their inadequate diet, which consists of fewer than 500 calories a day—one-fifth of the minimum standard set by the United Nations. Life expectancy is only forty-four years, and the infant mortality rate is 150 deaths per 1,000 live births.

20 • BIBLIOGRAPHY

Brosnahan, Tom. Guatemala, Belize and Yucatan: La Ruta Maya. Hawthorn, Australia: Lonely Planet Publications, 1994.

Canby, Peter. The Heart of the Sky: Travels Among the Maya. New York: HarperCollins, 1992.

Gerlach, Nancy, and Jeffrey Gerlach. Foods of the Maya: A Taste of the Yucatan. Freedom, Calif.: The Crossing Press, 1994.

Olson, James S. The Indians of Central and South America: An Ethnohistorical Dictionary. New York: Greenwood Press, 1991.

Trout, Lawana Hooper. The Maya. New York: Chelsea House, 1991.

WEBSITES

Columbus Group. [Online] Available http://www.quicklink.com/mexico/ , 1998.

Embassy of Mexico in Canada. [Online] Available http://www.docuweb.ca/Mexico/ , 1998.

Science Museum of Minnesota. Maya Adventure. [Online] Available http://www.sci.mus.mn.us/sln/ma/ , 1998.

World Travel Guide. [Online] Available http://www.wtgonline.com/country/mx/gen.html , 1998.



Also read article about Maya from Wikipedia

User Contributions:

1
sam-may
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May 17, 2006 @ 3:03 am
This is an awesome life-saver website i wouldn't have found the traditions of the mayan people.

Thanks.

sam-may
2
Leah
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Aug 24, 2006 @ 5:17 pm
You guys helped me with my project!!!!!! I hope I get a good grade.
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Abigail Mitts
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Nov 30, 2006 @ 1:13 pm
i like this definate information on the mayans its just what i need. i hope i get a good grade in my history class this year because of this project that i am doing. thanks alot you guys.
4
allie
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Dec 2, 2006 @ 5:17 pm
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5
emzie
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alexis
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7
Ruby Yagami
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May 12, 2008 @ 10:22 pm
thanks for the information!!!!
the lats one , my teacher said I had good information
and ya, thanks, again!

~Ruby Yagami♥
this site is awesome and im doing Modern Maya
8
Stranger
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Sep 15, 2008 @ 6:18 pm
this information is really useful, it has everything i need for my maya presentation xD
9
mark
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Sep 26, 2008 @ 7:19 pm
it would be very helpful if the auther's name was stated some were in this artical...he deserves credit for his insprerational work
10
camille claire
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Oct 29, 2008 @ 2:14 pm
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11
meghan
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Jan 15, 2009 @ 6:18 pm
thank you so much i am currently using it for a world cultures project on Mayan daily life. Thank you so much!
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brooke thomas
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Feb 12, 2009 @ 8:20 pm
excuse me, but i think ur page is very good and keep up the good work and btw u helped me with my project heapss!
13
Alan
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Feb 28, 2009 @ 11:11 am
Mayan civilisation is fabulous.It was great reading this write up.
14
Hunter
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Mar 10, 2009 @ 11:23 pm
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15
austin
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suzie
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april
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conners girl friend
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May 26, 2009 @ 6:18 pm
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19
HALLE
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May 27, 2009 @ 6:18 pm
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aille
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Jun 2, 2009 @ 9:09 am
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Jul 30, 2009 @ 10:10 am
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22
hi
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Sep 14, 2009 @ 8:20 pm
Thanks! I was looking everywhere for this info! I'm doing a project on the Maya and Inca tribes. :)
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Katherine Aries
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Oct 14, 2009 @ 5:17 pm
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Feb 15, 2010 @ 12:12 pm
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25
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Feb 18, 2010 @ 10:10 am
this website is good it helped me alot in this particular subject. thanks who ever made it, it has come to help me understand things better
26
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Feb 22, 2010 @ 10:22 pm
this page gave me a 100% in my grade it is so helpful thank you who ever made this page
27
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Apr 18, 2010 @ 8:20 pm
Thank you so much you helped me accomplished very much with my social studies turn in folder asmignment!! Who ever the Aurthor of this website is my, Hero! but Thank you again!
28
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Apr 23, 2010 @ 9:21 pm
This website gave me a lot of information. I have to do this Ancient Society project and I chose the Ancient Mayan Society!! Thank you!
--->Alice
29
Shayna
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Apr 23, 2010 @ 9:21 pm
Thank u for making this website... It helped a lot with my Homework!
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Apr 24, 2010 @ 12:12 pm
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31
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Apr 30, 2010 @ 4:16 pm
This gave me tons of information for the project I'm doing!
32
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Jun 2, 2010 @ 5:17 pm
Ty.This is 1 of THE BEST Mayan website i've been on.I hope I get a good grade in my project
33
Cari
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Aug 19, 2010 @ 10:22 pm
Thanks a lot I am doing my research project this information helps me a lot
34
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Aug 22, 2010 @ 9:21 pm
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35
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Sep 1, 2010 @ 3:15 pm
Tyhank you so much! My social studies fair project should be awesokmw!
36
selina
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Sep 9, 2010 @ 11:11 am
this helped me alot but the only thing is that i needed to know some of the contribution{s} that the mayans did but the rest i have thans alot u helped me alot
37
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Sep 17, 2010 @ 9:09 am
this is a helpful site it helped me on my information on mayans i'm n the fifth grade and this site helped me!!
38
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Oct 15, 2010 @ 8:08 am
Very good resource. All information in a good easy to grab format. Very nice information. Just one more thing should be added. Why maya people started civilization at that place? What were the factors that attracted them?
39
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Oct 25, 2010 @ 8:20 pm
this is very important abd this web site is ver accurate
40
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Dec 10, 2010 @ 6:18 pm
WOW! Thanks a lot makes me look smart! TOTAL life-saver! :)
41
Corey Dennie
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Jan 9, 2011 @ 11:11 am
Thanks a million...info really helped me out with a project worth 50% of my term's mark
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42
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Jan 16, 2011 @ 4:16 pm
This was really interesting I can't wait to read about the Incas and Aztecs next!
43
Lilly
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Feb 7, 2011 @ 11:11 am
This is a good website, but i think it should talk about important leaders.
44
Austin
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Feb 8, 2011 @ 10:22 pm
thanks guys you saved my life man all those other sites were garbage compared to this one i wish i had found this one first
45
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Feb 28, 2011 @ 4:16 pm
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46
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Mar 14, 2011 @ 4:16 pm
thanks for having this website!!! because im doing a project in school and this is excactly what i need Thanks Again,
sincerly Kayla
47
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Mar 17, 2011 @ 10:10 am
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48
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Mar 27, 2011 @ 6:18 pm
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49
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Apr 26, 2011 @ 7:07 am
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50
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May 31, 2011 @ 3:15 pm
what are the family roles in the ancient mayan society
51
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Jun 1, 2011 @ 12:12 pm
Could someone help me to find a about the jobs of Mayans and what jobs do they have and what jobs is it Please Help me tell me cause i was searching that to all site but i can't find it i just Have one paragraph and i need 7 about jobs
52
Mayaa
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Jun 10, 2011 @ 6:18 pm
I love this website . It helped me with my project in so many ways . I was also interested in reading more about the Mayans . They were great, and very different from us now days .
53
crystal
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Sep 30, 2011 @ 3:15 pm
Thankz for the infomation this is really going to get me 100% om my grade an i did really learn new things
54
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Oct 5, 2011 @ 9:09 am
Explain how slavery was used amongst the mayan people.
55
Ekram
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Oct 5, 2011 @ 10:10 am
this really did help me i got an a on my assignment useing this information
56
Isabella
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Oct 16, 2011 @ 5:17 pm
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57
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Oct 26, 2011 @ 4:16 pm
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58
gege
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Nov 1, 2011 @ 1:13 pm
Found what I'm looking for. It was a great source of information. My school uses this for info.
59
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Nov 18, 2011 @ 4:16 pm
this really helped me with a 1 1/2 page of information about the Mayans :) THANK YOU VERY MUCH!
60
Daniel
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Nov 27, 2011 @ 4:16 pm
Really helpful! I don't know how priscilla didnt find it helpful! This website is a great success!
61
victoria M.
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Nov 28, 2011 @ 4:16 pm
thamks for the information this website is awesome
62
gabberts
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Nov 30, 2011 @ 12:12 pm
dis website has been helpfull :) thanks to whoever made it ;)
63
Hope2014
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Dec 8, 2011 @ 12:12 pm
thank you so much, y'all saved me!!! this made my term paper so much easier.
64
samantha
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Jan 9, 2012 @ 6:18 pm
this website is very useful but can you add government of the mayans
65
darwin
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Feb 12, 2012 @ 7:07 am
this website help me alot thank you my social studies projec
66
Deborah Ishaku
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Feb 28, 2012 @ 10:22 pm
Thank so much indeed u make my day more easy to work for my project thanks a million times
67
Cina
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Mar 20, 2012 @ 7:19 pm
Great site. Thanks for the info. It was very usefull.
68
Adelina Lobato
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May 21, 2012 @ 3:15 pm
THis is a great website it tells you all you need to know about the mayas and helps with anything you may or need to know :)
69
Nick K
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Sep 3, 2012 @ 3:15 pm
I'm from Comayagua, Honduras an reading from my birth place excites me and perhaps some day I'l be able to go back an visit the rest of my family. Perhaps even find my father & mother. And learn a language or two..
70
le shawn
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Sep 12, 2012 @ 11:11 am
Thank you for this website it really helped me with passing up my down time. I use this website to jerk my chain if you know what i mean. If you dont it means using an up and down motion on my schlong. Sometimes i like to read peoples comments and think about there pubic hairs as i jack off. Sometimes after i ejaculate i use my cum to butter my toast while using my tears as lube. Sometimes on rainy days i like to take a dollar and put butter on it then roll it up. When the butter is inside i stick my gigantic black mamba in the dollar with butter and fuck it hardcore
71
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Oct 17, 2012 @ 1:13 pm
hey can you help me plzZ i wana some points about sevral times in the history of the word and civilizations ?
72
antonio
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Nov 3, 2012 @ 8:08 am
i really like this information.i am going to re-word this writing and use it for my reading project.





sincerely,
ANTONIOREA
:)
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alexa
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Nov 27, 2012 @ 12:00 am
its not a bad website its just not as helpful as i thought it would be
74
lawrance
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Dec 18, 2012 @ 4:04 am
It is most useful website to know the historic events and live events
75
Poodlelover159
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Jan 10, 2013 @ 10:10 am
i luv the wevsite because im doing a research on all of the mayas thing like clothes and food and things like that really awesome webiste
76
Joseline Pena
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Feb 4, 2013 @ 3:15 pm
what are some mayan holidays???
need help for a project
77
allison
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Feb 12, 2013 @ 11:11 am
this web site helped me a lot and did answer all my questions.
78
poopoo
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May 22, 2013 @ 12:12 pm
i love this website really helps me get a better perspective thank you.
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Marianaaaaa
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Jun 12, 2013 @ 5:17 pm
i like this it is going to be very helpful for my preoject:civilization;mayas
80
Shanay
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Jun 23, 2013 @ 4:16 pm
This will help me on my exams bt I also want to know about why Mayans think that child birth was vey important because I went on many websites and didn't see anything about that
81
Cris
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Sep 3, 2013 @ 3:15 pm
I would like to know more information about the Mayas in Belize, their past and present education. Would really appreciate help from anybody. Thanks
82
corina
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Sep 24, 2013 @ 4:16 pm
this website was sooo helpfull to me thanks a lot!!
83
adeliza gonzalez
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Sep 28, 2013 @ 10:10 am
this website is the best i ever used. i loved this website
somuch i got an A+ on my resarch.
84
Jermel lyons
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Oct 3, 2013 @ 3:15 pm
thx yoo. i am doin a native american prodject and this really helped.
85
jadelin richey
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Oct 22, 2013 @ 7:19 pm
who ever made this page rocks because im going to get an a on my project im doing in my class romm so thanks a lot
86
Rubbie
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Oct 29, 2013 @ 7:19 pm
OMG This website is so helpful. I know for sure that I'll get an A plus and bring my grade up
87
kaitlin
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May 16, 2014 @ 4:16 pm
I loved this website it helped so much! I hope i got a good grade...
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Anna
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Sep 30, 2014 @ 2:14 pm
this is really good website I would always use it for what ever culture im looking up! And so should YOU!
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rudy
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Oct 8, 2014 @ 1:13 pm
Great website! Could use a little more on celebrations and rites of passage, but i got a lot of information out of it :D
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vicky huang
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Oct 10, 2014 @ 11:11 am
this websites has a lot of fact. the other are too short information. i love this website so much than the other.
91
Vinnie
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Oct 20, 2014 @ 12:12 pm
This is awesome helped me wit my project had everything I was looking for facts culture everything
92
banana
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Oct 28, 2014 @ 12:12 pm
i love this web site it was so usefull and i hope i get a good grade on my science project
93
Kaylee
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Nov 6, 2014 @ 7:19 pm
This is the best website ever. I am doing project and I bet I will get a four because o this website. Thank you
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Bean
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Feb 26, 2015 @ 1:13 pm
This information helped me but all I needed to know is what other civilizations did the Mayans rely on for many ideas and inventions.
95
Malley
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Mar 4, 2015 @ 8:08 am
Great website, Hope I get a good grade on my test.
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Andrew
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Mar 5, 2015 @ 8:08 am
This is great!!! I got a good grade on my test because of this website!
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zainab
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Apr 9, 2015 @ 12:12 pm
I love this website I have learned so much already
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Sarah
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Apr 26, 2015 @ 7:19 pm
I like
This website I learned a lot of facts this is awesome!
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Heaven
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Apr 30, 2015 @ 7:07 am
I Really Believe That This Site Really Works.I Will Highly Recommend This Site To My Friends Nd Classmates.
100
Jessica
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May 11, 2015 @ 10:22 pm
Thank you very much. This has helped me greatly. I will recommend this to all my friends, classmates, and teachers. Again, thank you very much. The creator should get an award or something. So helpful!
101
jenna
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Sep 16, 2015 @ 6:18 pm
thanks alot . This help me alot in my research. I hope i get a good grade
102
jadon
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Sep 29, 2015 @ 8:20 pm
it did not help with my soseliget work on her but ok site
103
kang
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May 2, 2017 @ 4:16 pm
thanks for the information you saved my life.. I hope I get a good grade .
104
mara
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Sep 18, 2017 @ 11:11 am
Wow, helped so much with my project. I do not know what I would do without this website
105
mara
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Sep 19, 2017 @ 8:08 am
Wow, helped so much with my project. I do not know what I would do without this website

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