LOCATION: Philippines (northern Luzon)
POPULATION: 1.8 million
RELIGION: Roman Catholicism; Philippine Independent Church; Iglesia ni Kristo (Church of Christ); Protestantism; Islam; animism
1 • INTRODUCTION
When the Spanish first encountered them in 1572, the inhabitants of Ilocos (then called "Samtoy") were living in large villages at sheltered coves or rivermouths and were trading with the Chinese and Japanese. Although massive churches in a distinctive style give evidence of Spanish-Ilocano collaboration, the colonial period was marked by frequent revolts; the most famous of these was that led by Diego and Gabriela Silang during the British occupation of Manila in 1762–63.
Ilocanos were prominent in the nationalist movement, and many rose to high office in the central government. The greatest of these Ilocano "success stories" (as far as it went) was President Ferdinand Marcos, who ruled from 1965 to 1986.
2 • LOCATION
The four provinces of the Ilocano homeland (Ilocos Norte, Ilocos Sur, La Union, and landlocked Abra) stretch from Cape Bojeador at the northwestern tip of Luzon down to the Gulf of Lingayen. Most of the population is concentrated along a narrow coastal plain that has only a few good harbors. This environment is harsh, forcing Ilocanos to be hard-working and thrifty. Many Ilocanos have left their homeland to seek employment elsewhere.
The population of the four provinces is about 1.8 million. Ilocano speakers, however, numbered 11 percent of the national population of 66 million, or 7.26 million people. Among all Filipino groups, the Ilocanos are the most famed as migrants, settling since the nineteenth century in sparsely populated expanses of the northern Central Plain of Luzon (provinces of Pangasinan, Tarlac, and Nueva Ecija) and of the Cagayan Valley in the northeast. In addition, many Ilocanos have established themselves in Manila and other major cities of the country, as well as in frontier lands on Mindanao. Ilocano men left to find work as migrant laborers on sugar plantations in Hawaii and on farms in California in the first decades of the twentieth century. They were the first Filipinos to immigrate to the United States. In the Philippines, every Ilocano town has a number of men known as "Hawaiianos," returned migrants from the United States. These migrants courted their future wives in their home country by letter.
3 • LANGUAGE
The Ilocanos speak a Western Austronesian language of the Northern Philippine group, whose closest relatives are the languages of neighboring mountain peoples. Ilocano has become the lingua franca of northern Luzon, as Ilocano traders provide highland peoples with their primary link to the commerce of the outside world.
4 • FOLKLORE
According to one Ilocano origin myth, a giant named Aran built the sky and hung the sun, moon, and stars in it. Under their light, Aran's companion, the giant Angalo, could see the land, which he then molded into mountains and valleys. The giants found the world they had created windswept and desolate. Angalo spat on the earth, and from his spit emerged the first man and woman. He placed them in a bamboo tube that he tossed into the sea. The bamboo washed up on the shore of the Ilocos region, and from this couple came the Ilocano people.
Like other Filipinos, Ilocanos recognize an array of supernatural beings, such as the katawtaw-an (the spirits of infants, who died unbaptized who in turn victimize newborns). The karkarma, the souls of living persons, leave the body at death but linger in the house until after the post-funerary offerings of food are made to the deceased; in the form of the scent of perfume, the odor of a burning candle, or a strange draft of wind, they are believed to visit relatives who have failed to come to the sickbed of the deceased. The al-alia, the spirit doubles of humans, appear at their human doubles' death as the groaning of the dying, the cracking of glass, the rattling of beds, and the banging of doors, or in the form (at night) of a grunting pig, howling dog, or a crowing chicken. These signs remind the living to pray to God for the forgiveness of the deceased's sins (otherwise, the al-alia may visit misfortunes upon them).
5 • RELIGION
Filipinos were converted to Roman Catholicism by Spanish colonial settlers. Catholicism in the Philippines combines belief in patron saints with belief in supernatural forces. Many people consult faith healers for herbal treatments of physical ailments.
6 • MAJOR HOLIDAYS
Ilocanos celebrate national and religious holidays.
7 • RITES OF PASSAGE
Although free to choose their own marriage partners, young people seek the approval of both sets of parents. When a couple decides they'd like to marry, the first step is for the young man to ask for the consent of his own parents. His parents will pay the dowry and finance the wedding. Next, the future groom makes a formal announcement (panagpudno) to the young woman's parents of his intention to marry their daughter. The groom's parents then visit the future bride's parents, to set the date for the wedding. For this, the parents consult a planetario, an almanac identifying auspicious (good-luck) days. At a further meeting (palalian or ringpas), the young man and his relatives come to the young woman's house to finalize the wedding arrangements; each party employs a spokesperson who negotiates for his or her side in formal language. The families set the choice of wedding sponsors (an equal number, ranging from ten to fifty people for each side), the dowry (land for the couple, or the money to buy such land), the sagut (the wedding dress, jewelry, and accessories that the groom is to provide for the bride), and the parawad (cash that the groom gives the bride's mother as a reward for raising his bride).
The wedding feast follows the church ceremony. At the feast, the bride and groom go through an entertaining ritual. First, the groom offers the bride a plate of mung beans (symbolizing fertility). The bride refuses the dish several times before finally accepting it. Then the bride offers the beans to the groom who in turn refuses the dish until an old man calls an end to the ritual. (The pleadings and feigned refusals greatly amuse the onlookers.) Another highlight is the bitor: guests contribute cash to the newlyweds either by dropping money onto plates held by two men seated on a mat (representing the bride and groom, respectively) or by pinning bills to the couple's clothing while the two dance. After the wedding, offerings of rice cakes are made to the spirits of departed family members.
To announce a death formally, a piece of wood (atong) is lit in front of the deceased's house and is kept burning until after burial, at which time it is extinguished with rice wine. The corpse is kept in the house. It is dressed in its best clothes and a kerchief is tied around the jaw; a basin of water mixed with vinegar is placed under the bed to remove the odor of death. Money is placed in the coffin to pay the "ferry man" who takes the soul to the other world. In the days before burial, relatives keep vigil over the body, wailing and recounting the deceased's good deeds (sometimes, professional mourners perform the lamentation (dung-aw) .
Before the funeral itself, each of the relatives pays their last respects by kissing the deceased's hand or raising it to his or her forehead. Extreme care is taken in transporting the body from the house to the church; any mishap could cause premature death for the attendants. After the church ceremony, the relatives pose as a group for souvenir photos with the coffin. Everyone in the procession to the cemetery must return to the deceased's home by a different route from the one taken there. Upon arrival, they must wash their faces and hands in order to remove the power of death.
8 • RELATIONSHIPS
Ilocanos share the same basic values as other Filipinos, such as bain, which corresponds to hiya or amor propio ("face" or sense of shame). The fear of gossip and the desire to avoid the envy of others serve as strong pressures for conformity. Before pushing through with his or her own plans, a person feels alumiim, the need to figure out how others will react first in order to avoid embarrassment. It is essential to show panagdayaw, proper respect for the sensitivities of others. This requires that individuals speak about themselves only in the humblest of terms. Although Ilocanos are group-oriented, they also value a certain individualism (agwayas) : one should not reveal his or her inner intentions to others, since it is unwise to be too trusting.
A person is expected to overcome life's challenges through his or her own hard work, limiting his or her dependence on others to obtaining aid from close kin. However, Ilocanos do form savings associations (including as many as fifty women in a neighborhood), mutual-aid associations (financing members' major celebrations), and labor-exchange arrangements.
Life-passage parties and fiestas provide teenagers their main opportunity to chat and joke. For a young man to initiate a courtship is a serious matter, since the only proper end is marriage. On his first visit to the house of a young woman, the young man takes one or two companions with him so that he can get their opinion. During the second visit, the companions excuse themselves to allow the young man to confess his feelings to the young woman. Love notes are an important means of courtship.
9 • LIVING CONDITIONS
Raised two to three feet (0.6 meters to 1 meter) off the ground, houses have beams of wood, walls of bamboo, and roofs of rice straw or cogon grass. Sometimes, newly married children may live in roofed extensions. On the bangsal, a landing on the staircase, guests wait before being admitted, and wash or wipe their feet before entering the receiving room. Curtains or bamboo partitions separate the living room from the bedroom areas (most have beds but prefer sleeping mats). A separate storage room also serves for a place to change clothes. Outhouses provide toilet facilities.
10 • FAMILY LIFE
The structure of the Ilocano family (average size, six to seven persons) conforms to the general Filipino pattern. The father is the formal head of family, backing up the mother who disciplines the children and manages the house finances. The eldest child divides the chores equally among siblings. Grandparents tend to be more indulgent of grandchildren than the parents themselves.
11 • CLOTHING
Dress inappropriate for one's age or perceived wealth or status attracts gossip such as mabiag ti ruar ngem matay ti uneg (outwardly alive, but inwardly dying); uray napintas no inutang (even if it is nice, it is acquired through credit). Still one should dress well for special celebrations. Everyday wear, especially at home, consists of short pants for boys, and dusters, loose skirts, shirts, and short pants for girls. Those working in the fields wear long-sleeved shirts, long pants, and wide-brimmed hats as protection against the sun and mud.
During the rainy season, people wear a headress of labig leaves extending well down the back. Older women wear their hair long and knotted in a bun, while men keep it short and apply pomade on special occasions.
12 • FOOD
Ilocano food essentially resembles that elsewhere in the country, but Ilocanos are especially fond of bagoong (a salty shrimp or fish paste). One regional specialty that has entered national cuisine is pinakbet— eggplant, bitter melon, okra, and green beans cooked with bagoong, tomatoes, and a little water (dried or broiled fish, meat, or shrimps can be added to improve the taste).
Other favorites are dinardaraan— cooked pig's blood ( dinuguan in Tagalog-Pilipino); and kilawen— the lean meat and intestines of water buffalo, cow, sheep, or goat, eaten raw or partially cooked with a sauce of vinegar, salt, hot pepper, and pig's bile.
Eating with their hands, family members squat around the food laid out on the floor or take food and eat in different parts of the main room. As food is regarded as a symbol of God's grace, there should be no noise, laughing, singing, or harsh words (including parents scolding children) while eating is going on. One should not drop food on the table or floor, or the food "will be angered and leave the household." Similarly, no one should leave the house while someone is still eating, for God's grace will go with him or her, out of the home.
13 • EDUCATION
Iloconas are almost all literate (can read or write).
14 • CULTURAL HERITAGE
The Ilocanos have an epic, the Biag ni Lamang (Life of Lam-ang), which, however, exists only in the form of a highly Hispanicized metrical romance composed in the nineteenth century. Ilocos is also the only place in the country where the Spanish zarzuela (operetta) is still performed.
15 • EMPLOYMENT
Almost all farmers (the major occupation) own the land they till, except for those who are tenants of farms owned by urban professionals. The staple crop is rice, though poorer people must mix cheaper maize (corn) with their rice. Root crops are also grown both as a supplement to the diet and for sale. Watered by wet-season rains or irrigation, wet-rice fields range from small plots that can only be worked with a hoe or dibble stick to those large enough for a water-buffalo–drawn plow. Dry-rice agriculture is also practiced in the hilly areas between the flatlands. Crops grown for market include tobacco and garlic (both Ilocos specialties), as well as onions, and vegetables. Petty traders may travel as far as Manila to sell such products.
Farmers fish during the lull between planting and harvesting, usually in nearby offshore waters, rivers, or fish ponds. An important part of the catch are ipon, small fish for bagoong (fish paste).
Cottage industries include salt-making; basi wine-making (from molasses); pottery-making (twenty different types are produced in San Nicolas); weaving (at one time using locally grown cotton; a goddess is said to have bequeathed the art to the people of Paoay town); basket-and mat-weaving; woodworking; and silversmithing (recycling old Spanish or Mexican coins).
16 • SPORTS
One uniquely Ilocano game is kukudisi . A stick (the an-anak ) is placed on a baseline scratched into the ground. One player makes the stick jump in the air; the other player tries to catch it before it hits the ground. If the latter cannot do so, a second, longer stick (the in-ina ) is laid across the baseline; the player then tries to hit it with the an-anak. The next two phases of the game involve competing to see who can hit the an-anak (which has been tossed in the air and stuck into the baseline, respectively) with the in-ina the farthest.
17 • RECREATION
Children enjoy such games as balay-balay (playing house), hide-and-seek, team-tag, jumping "hurdles" (sticks or outstretched arms or legs), jacks, and chess.
18 • CRAFTS AND HOBBIES
Ilocanos engage in the same hobbies as all Filipinos. These include weaving, wood-carving, and playing chess.
19 • SOCIAL PROBLEMS
Ilocanos, like all Filipinos, feel their government is corrupt. Wealthy citizens frequently bribe officials to get the verdict they want.
20 • BIBLIOGRAPHY
Jocano, F. Landa. The Ilocanos: An Ethnography of Family and Community in the Ilocos Region. Quezon City: Asian Center, University of Philippines, 1982.
LeBar, Frank M., ed. Ethnic Groups of Insular Southeast Asia. Vol. 2, The Philippines and Formosa. New Haven, Conn.: Human Relations Area Files Press, 1972