Hausa - History and Cultural Relations

Hausa history is one of immigration and conquest. The Hausa nation has evolved from the incorporation over hundreds of years of many different peoples who joined the original stock. They are united by a common language and adherence to a common religion, Islam. According to tradition, the Hausa people derive from the Hausa bakwai, the "true" seven states, of which Daura (named after its female founder) is considered the most senior. In the myth of origin, Bayajidda, the son of the king of Baghdad, arrived in Daura via Bornu. He killed the snake that occupied the well, impeding the townspeople's access to the water. As a reward, Bayajidda married the queen. Their son Bawo was the progenitor of six sons, thereby founding six states—Daura, Katsina, Zazzau (Zaria), Gobir, Kano, and Rano. Bayajidda's son by his first wife, Magira (a Kanuri woman), founded Biram, the seventh state.

In fact, it is not known when the movement of peoples actually occurred; neither has the migrants' place of origin been pinpointed. The seven Habe kingdoms were formed by a coalescence of strangers with local folk. The emergence of states in Hausaland was apparently associated with the establishment of capital cities as centers of power. They were different from earlier settlements in that they were cosmopolitan, fortified, and each the seat of a king who was recognized as the superior power throughout the surrounding area.

Before 1804, Habe kings ruled over Hausaland; following 1804, the Fulani took over, and by mid-century the Hausa were stratified into three tiers: the hereditary ruling Fulani, the appointive ruling class dominated by Fulani, and the Habe commoners.

Hausa relations with others are considerable, because of their extensive involvement with trade and Islam. There is considerable exchange with the Kanuri to the east, the nomadic Tuareg, and southern Nigerians (Igbo, Yoruba); in their diaspora settlements, other ethnic groups that share their cultural orientation, such as the Wangara, the Zabarama, the Adar, the Nupe, are often lumped together with them as "Hausa."

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May 19, 2011 @ 12:12 pm
I wanted to know the origin of banza bakwai? and again did Bayajida had children with Magira his first kanuri wife? how did he Bayajida killed the snake in daura?
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Jun 30, 2011 @ 12:12 pm
I need to know, how abuzayida kill the snake,nd how he did to married the queen
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Oct 6, 2011 @ 1:13 pm
i want you to send me the image of hausa's culture. And the view of how bayajidda kills the snake. Tru my email
Babatunde Abiodun
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Nov 12, 2011 @ 6:06 am
I want to know the factors that were responsible for the rise of 'Hausa state'. kindly send to my mail
Bashir Bello
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Nov 21, 2011 @ 12:12 pm
Please what is the source(s) of these connectection of the true history of Hausa with Abu Yazidu, does this mean before coming of him there were no hausa people or what? Assit me please through my e-mail address.
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Jan 23, 2012 @ 8:08 am
Laban Luka Tsambi
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May 2, 2012 @ 8:08 am
Some historians are of the view that Hausa people originated from Ethopia, please elaborate.
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May 14, 2012 @ 6:06 am
Please,what are those factors that led to the rise of Hausa states?Send to my email address
Adaraloye balikis
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Mar 3, 2013 @ 5:17 pm
Can u tell us more about the history of hausa because i need to knw it
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Mar 23, 2013 @ 8:08 am
The late Baura priest of BaGaji( refer to "ruwan Bagaja" of hausa folks) said in a history book of Mahamadou Karimou that "Bagazaza a prince from Bornou waged war for 300 years" see the resemblance with BaGAZAwa in the history of Harris. This Bagazaza said the Priest Baura was the basis of cities like Katsina, Kano. Another source is that of Mallam shaihua a learned malam:"History of Hausa people: a detail of their origin", 1913. he said: " if someone asks you about the origin of hausa, say truly they are from Bare-bari and Northeners, people of Arewa-Daura who were the original black people of North Africa.
The name of the 8th king of Arewa kingdom is Manakhare see the resemblance with pharaoh Menekhare. Many names in ancient egypt and Mesopotamia still exist in hausa.some example in egypt: Masara, Azna,Qsar-El farah-frah(called white desert in egyp), wadi-Es-Sebuah, Karnaka, Kurruu, Kom-ombo, Dakhila, Dandereh, Samna,Sanam,Montu, Khemu,Aminti, Angwanti,Ango (Ank-hor), Napata, Meruwa(Meroe), Naqada etc.
Samaria, kingdom of Rubutu, Warka(uruk), kingdom of Mari,
kingdom o Mitani, city of Biram, city of Dura, city of Gaza,city of Nazareth( some historians said it is Nasarawa)
DEITIES and kings:
"Da" meaning "epoch" the same in hausa.
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Mar 23, 2013 @ 9:09 am
History of Arewa is worthy to be cited in other to point out some aspects of Hausa history. Harris, Sokoto Province Gazetteer, 1938, said:" In Arewa kingdom, North of Kebbi, they talked about a certain Damuzu( Damuzi:God of fertility in Mesopotamia) leader of BaGAZAwa( City of Gaza not Bagdhad), ancestor of Sarkin Baura who came at the time of fair-skinned people.They came from the East and they built wells everywhere. Many Hausa towns bear this "Gaza" root: BaGAZAm (one of Gobirawa settlement in the Aïr Desert before moving West, TanGAZA, Naqi-Gaza, MaGAZAwa, GAZAwa etc.

Arewa, Niger Republic, is the locality where the last Saraunia of Daura fled after being informed of a secret coup d'Etat by her brother. this might be within the arrival of islam in Hausa land. Saraunia of Azna was accompanied by her greatest priests like Baura of Bagaji, Lahama of Kaura and so also the "Kona" leader of Konawas. Konawas were also the first settlers in Zaria where there presence was confirmed in the early 15th century. the Kona title is " Gabi Uwar Sarki, Gabi KAn Kasa". Saraunia is also accompanied by Sarkin Ruafi and Sarkin Tudu. one of Sarkin Arewa kings was Manakhare : this name look alike pharaoh Menekhare.
Hausa historians must endevour to retrieve the true history of Hausa people.
Laouali Yahaya
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Mar 23, 2013 @ 2:14 pm
The cause of this exodus from Mesopotamia to Africa is told in many oral histories. After Namuradi's death, there was a great war of succession in between princes. This war could be assimilated with which is told in the indian's"Mahabrata" book: The war of kauravas: kaurawas of the city of Kuru.
Hausa shares many words with Asian languages such as Arab, Hebrew, and some related Sanskrit languages overall in Pakistan area. Examples:
Martaba means "prestige", Mata means "woman" Baba is father, Masala means "problem" Maharaja equals Maidaraja, Sarki was king title like in Paunjar kingdom during the 14th century. There was one Emperor named Maharaja Kaura Mall.
Hausa and Swahili are the ancient arabic languages as had said late Al-Gadafi in his speech in Kano. A simple example is the word "day/today" in hausa it's "yau" arabs add "mi" and it becomes "yaumi", Mutuwa (Maut) etc. The ancient Maguzawa term for salutation was "Barka da ratse" who borrowed from whom? because hausa were before islam city dwellers wereas arabs were in majority nomadic. Hausa were said to leave in Yemen( may be Yamma) "west" of Mesopotamia and found its capital which is still Sana-â(business/commerce).
There was a history of an Arewa king named Kabrin Kabra who reproduced the same deeds as Nimrod. It was said that he overcame all wild animals. in the bible it is said: "Nimrod, the one who vainquished the tiger". Kabrin-Kabra asked his people to built a tower in between the eath and the sky, he asked to kill all the wise etc. May be it was at that time he had founded "Samaria" which became later capital of the ten tribes of Israel.
Laouali Yahaya
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Mar 25, 2013 @ 3:15 pm
Recently, I read an articles on the Shemali of India, people of Kano origin who stayed in India after performing a Piligrimage to Mecca in the 15 th century. Their leader was Baba Ghor and was specialised in Agate ore. His arrival is remembered in India and the members of this Afro-indian origin gained a prosperous position due to jewelry and control of mining activities in India.
This confirms the assertion of Alice C. Linsley, a bible anthropologist who talked about an Afro-asiatic dominion led by Sarkis: we have sarki in Cambodgia(king priest), a dynasty of Sarkis in Paunjur kingdom starting from the 13th century.
katushabe innocent
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Apr 15, 2013 @ 4:04 am
plse may you give me more information about the organisation, reasons for the rise and what caused the eventual decline of these states. thanks
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Apr 17, 2013 @ 2:14 pm
Pls I want to know if its true that Libyans decended from the Hausas.thank u
Ibrahim sabo muh'd
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Jun 4, 2013 @ 5:17 pm
What are the factors were responsible for the rise of Hausa states in Hausa land
Bahense Osman
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Jun 18, 2013 @ 10:10 am
This brief history of Hausa has realy helped some of us. this means Zabara, and the Wangara are all Hausa by nature.

But if I may ask, which country are they coming from as they are now spread all over the Africa continent?

Does it mean all Hausa people are Muslims?
Laouali Yahaya
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Jul 3, 2013 @ 4:16 pm
@ Firdaus
What is obvious is the existence of Hausa facial scarifications even today among white lybians specially in the Sabha countryside. Our people who bear these scarifications are treated with honours. Some of these berbers, sometimes, tell hausas that their grandfather or their ancestors bear this or that kind of scarifications.
The berbers of Siwa region near Qasr El Fara-frah(white desert), have the same haplogroup 45% of R1b1 within 20 specimen; while Hausa of Cameroun have 40 % R1b1 within an equal sample. Pharaoh Tutan ka Amon(live image of Amon) had the same DNA: R1b1
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Dec 29, 2013 @ 7:07 am
Firstly,i would commend you for your efforts in this article, yet, i have this question to ask:- which writing system and orthography does hausa language use?...with comprehensive details. thanks.
Phoebe Mbwara
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Nov 4, 2014 @ 1:01 am
I want to know expressions in Hausa Bakwai and Banza Bakwai that show the difference between the two ie the true seven Hausa States (Hausa Bakwai) and their seven outlying satellites (Banza Bakwai). Please send it through my email address. Thank you.
Ibrahim Haruna
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May 9, 2015 @ 3:03 am
Please, I want to know the origin of Hausa people and their Ancestors, all over the world, and how many percent their converted to Islam in world. Thanks.
Abdullah I.G Talasse
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Jun 27, 2015 @ 3:03 am
U want to know the Hausa bakwai and Banza bakwai States in Nigeria.
Ibrahim Ahmad
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Aug 10, 2016 @ 7:07 am
What are the factors that shaped Kanem borno and Hausaland relations?
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Oct 13, 2016 @ 4:16 pm
Pls I need answer to the this question. what religion did hausa practices bf Fulani invasion in 1804
Dahiriyya AD Gaguma
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Oct 19, 2016 @ 6:18 pm
which cities were first build in the world and who was the first person sterted building the cities. I need to be sent through my email

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