Leuba demarcates three periods in Cham history. In the first of these, the Cham were at war with China (from the second to the tenth centuries A.D. ). During the second period the Cham were engaged in armed conflict with the people of Annam (tenth to fifteenth centuries A.D. ) . The end of this period witnessed the destruction of the kingdom of Champa by the Annamese emperor Thanh ton (in 1471 A.D. ). Attempts to throw off the yoke of Annamese subjugation failed, and a gradual decline of Cham culture took place from the sixteenth century onward. During this third period, the decline of the kingdom precipitated an exodus from Champa to Cambodia by a number of Cham dignitaries and persons of noble birth. The last descendant of the Cham royal line died early in the twentieth century at Palei Chanar. The early 1900s witnessed a decline in the Cham population, but subsequent times have witnessed their resurgence. The ancient Cham were known for their seafaring skills, agricultural inventiveness, and construction of temples and religious monuments. The culture of the Cham in more recent periods has had little of the flavor of its ancient progenitor, relative poverty having replaced the grandeur of its ancient past.