Kin Groups and Descent. The descent system is bilateral and characterized by merging of collateral with lineal kin, use of reciprocal terms, primary importance of the generation principle, and rarity of sex-differentiation in terms of reference. Kindred are of prime importance and consist of the eight pairs of great-great-grandparents, siblings, first cousins, second cousins, third cousins, and the ascendants and descendants of all these categories. There are no corporate descent groups, but in the major town, Lubuagan, the former capital of Kalinga Subprovince, there are wealthy families that seem to be showing the beginnings of patrilineal corporate descent groups; the fathers in these families are arranging marriages for their children with second- and third-degree cross cousins in other wealthy families.
Kinship Terminology. The terminological system generally fits the Eskimo type but emphasizes the kindred rather than the nuclear family.