ETHNONYMS: Hwach'ǒk, Paekchong, Yangsuch'ǒk
Outcaste communities were internally self-governing, but detailed descriptions are unavailable.
Chang, D. H. (1974). "A Study of the Korean Cultural Minority: The Paekchong." In Traditional Korea: Theory and Practice, edited by A. C. Nahm, 55-87. Kalamazoo: Western Michigan University Center for Korean Studies.
Moore, S. F. (1898). "The Butchers of Korea." The Korean Repository 5:127-132.
Passin, Herbert (1956-1957). "The Paekchong of Korea." Monumenta Nipponica 12:195-240.
Rao, A., ed. (1987). The Other Nomads: Peripatetic Minorities in Cross-Cultural Perspective. Cologne and Vienna: Bohlau.
Soon, M. R. (1974). "The Paekchong: Untouchables of Korea." Hong Kong Journal of Oriental Studies 12:30-40.
DAVID J. NEMETH