The Sulod (Buki, Bukidnon, Mondo, Mundo, Putian) are a mountain people numbering about 14,000 in 1980, who live along the banks of the Panay River on central Panay Island in the Bisayan Islands in the central Philippines. Sulod is classified in the Hesperonesian Group of the Austronesian Language Family. Small, autonomous settlements consist of from five to seven four-walled, one-room houses, raised on bamboo or wooden posts. Subsistence is based on cultivation of rice, maize, and sweet potato, supplemented by hunting and fishing. Descent is bilateral. Leadership is in the hands of the oldest man of each settlement. The Sulod believe in several spirits and deities and hold at least sixteen annual ceremonies, most of which are conducted by the religious specialists ( baylan ).


Jonaco, F. Landa (1968). Sulod Society: A Study of the Kinship System and Social Organization of a Mountain People of Central Panay. Institute of Asian Studies, Monograph Series, no. 2. Quezon City: University of the Philippines Press.

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