Bugle - Kinship

Descent is presumably cognatic, as among the Ngawbe. No clans, lineages, or other unilineal descent groups are reported for the Bugle. The universal unit of production and consumption is the nuclear family. There are some laterally and lineally extended family households, as well as polygynous households. Larger groups cooperate in various agricultural tasks and house building through the mechanism of the cooperative labor party, or junta. Such labor groups consist of kin and nearby neighbors (who are usually kin as well). Juntas operate on the principle of balanced reciprocity: the host owes equivalent labor to each of those who has helped him.

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