The native peoples of Baja California are found today above the 30th parallel in Baja California, Mexico, and southern California in the United States. The five distinct groups, with population estimates for the 1980s, are the Cocopa (Cocopá, Cocopah, Cucapá, Kikima, Kokwapá, Kwikapa), about 800; the Digeuño (Diagueno, Diegueño, Digueno, Kumeyaay, Tipai-Ipai), 350 to 400 in Baja California; the Kiliwi (Kaliwa, Kiliwa, Quiligua), about 60; the Paipai (Akwa'ala), about 250; and the Tipai (Campo), about 185. All of these groups were heavily influenced by early and continuous missionary activity in the area.
Almstedt, Ruth (1974). Bibliography of the Diegueno Indians. Ramona, Calif.: Bailena Press.
Aschmann, Homer (1967). The Central Desert of Baja Callfornia: Demography and Ecology. Riverside, Calif.: Manessier.
Kelly, William Henderson (1977). Cocopa Ethnography. Tucson: University of Arizona Press.