ETHNONYMS: Cuna, Tule, Tulemala


The Kuna kinship system is bilateral. Age and sex are reflected in kin terms. Cross and parallel cousins are not terminologically distinguished. Kinship terms are often used in place of personal names.


Chapin, Mac (1990). "The Silent Jungle: Ecotourism among the Kuna Indians of Panama." Cultural Survival Quarterly 14(1): 42-45.

Herrera, Francisco (1972). "Aspectos del desarollo economico y social de los indios kunas de San Blas." América indígena 32(1): 113-138.

Holloman, Regina (1976). "Cuna Household Types and the Domestic Cycle." In Frontier Adaptation in Lower South America, edited by Mary Helms and Franklin Loveland, 131-149. Philadelphia: Institute for the Study of Human Issues.

Howe, James (1986). The Kuna Gathering: Contemporary Village Politics in Panama. Austin: University of Texas Press.

Sherzer, Joel (1983). Kuna Ways of Speaking. Austin: University of Texas Press.

Stier, Frances Rhoda (1982). "Domestic Economy: Land, Labor, and Wealth in a San Blas Community." American Ethnologist 9(3): 519-537.

Stout, David (1947). San Blas Cuna Acculturation: An Introduction. New York: Viking Fund.

Tice, Karin E. (1994). Kuna Crafts, Gender, and the Global Economy. Austin: University of Texas Press.


Also read article about Kuna from Wikipedia

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