Armas Molinas, Miguel (1974). La cultura pipil de Centro América. San Salvador: Ministerio de Educación.

Campbell, Lyle (1985). The Pipil Language of El Salvador. Berlin: Mouton.

Castaneda Paganini, Ricardo (1959). La cultura toltecapipil de Guatemala. Guatemala City: Editorial del Ministerio de Educación Publica.

Chapin, Mac (1989). "The 500,000 Invisible Indians of El Salvador." Cultural Survival Quarterly 13(3): 11-16.

Fowler, William R., Jr. (1983). "La distribución prehistórica e histórica de los pipiles." Mesoamerica 4(6): 348-372.

Fowler, William R., Jr. (1985). "Ethnohistoric Sources on the Pipil-Nicarao of Central America: A Critical Analysis." Ethnohistory 32(1): 37-62.

Fowler, William R., Jr. (1989a). The Cultural Evolution of Ancient Nahua Civilizations: The Pipil-Nicarao of Central America. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press.

Fowler, William R., Jr. (1989b). "Pipil of Pacific Guatemala and El Salvador." In New Frontiers in the Archaeology of the Pacific Coast of Southern Mesoamerica, edited by Frederick Bove and Lynette Heller. Anthropological Research Papers, no. 39. Tempe: Arizona State University.

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