The Iowa (Pahodja) lived throughout much of the present state of Iowa and in adjoining parts of Minnesota and Missouri and were culturally related to the neighboring Oto and Missouri. They now live principally on the Iowa Indian Reservation (which straddles the Kansas-Nebraska state boundary along the Missouri River) and in a federal trust area in central Oklahoma. They speak a Chiwere Siouan language and numbered about one thousand in the mid-1980s.


Gussow, Zachary (1974). Sac, Fox, and Iowa Indians. Vol. I. New York: Garland Publishing.

Skinner, Alanson (1926). "Ethnology of the Ioway Indians." Bulletin of the Public Museum of the City of Milwaukee 5:181 — 354.

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