The Wishram (Echeloots, Haxluit, Tlakluit), who with the Wasco (Galasqo) constitute the Upper Chinook, lived around The Dalles on the Columbia River in north-central Oregon and south-central Washington. Today, the Wishram live in their traditional territory and on the Yakima Indian Reservation. The Wasco live with the Northern Paiute and other groups on the Warm Springs Indian Reservation in Oregon. They speak Chinook languages of the Penutian phylum.


French, David H. (1961). "Wasco-Wishram." In Perspectives in American Indian Culture Change, edited by Edward H. Spicer, 357-430. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

French, David H. (1985). "Zebras along the Columbia River: Imaginary Wasco-Wishram Names for Real Animals." International Journal of American Linguistics 51:410-412.

Spier, Leslie, and Edward Sapir (1930). "Wishram Ethnography." University of Wisconsin Publications in Anthropology 3:151-300. Madison.

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