The settlement pattern is typically European, with people living in villages, towns, and four major cities (Tallinn, Tartu, Narva, and Köhlta Jarve). Since the late 1920s houses in rural areas have been constructed of bricks, rather than the traditional wood, so as to conserve timber resources.

See also Karelians


Konstantin Päts Fund (1974). Estonia: Story of a Nation. New York: Konstantin Päts Fund.

Panning, Tönu, and Elmar Järvesoo, eds. (1978). A Case Study of a Soviet Republic: The Estonian SSR. Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press.

Raud, Villibald (1953). Estonia: A Reference Book. New York: Nordic Press.

Raun, Toivo U. (1991). Estonia and the Estonians. 2nd ed. Stanford, Calif.: Hoover Institution Press.

Selirand, J., and E. Toñisson (1984). Through Past Millennia: Archaeological Discoveries in Estonia. Tallinn: Perioodka.

Uustalu, Evald, ed. (1961). Aspects of Estonian Culture. London: Boreas Publishing Co.


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