Literacy among the Kubachi spread between the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, with the introduction of Arabic literature. In 1404-1405 a Moslem school ( medresseh ) was opened in Kubachi. Until 1928 the Kubachins, like all people of Daghestan, used the so-called Ajam script: the Arabic alphabet adapted to the transcription of the phonetics of the local languages. In Soviet times a secondary school was opened in Kubachi. Study from the first grade on is conducted in Russian. Books, newspapers, magazines, radio, film, and television have become a part of the Kubachi way of life, although the Kubachi language is not used for writing (Dargin is the literary language of the community). There is a Kubachi intellectual community including one corresponding member of the Azerbaijan Academy of Sciences, five Ph.D.s, twenty doctoral candidates in the sciences, and writers, journalists, physicians, engineers, and geologists.