Culture of São Tomé e Príncipe

Identification. São Tomé e Príncipe is the second smallest country in the Organization of African Unity.

Culture of Saudi Arabia

Identification. The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (in Arabic, al-Mamlaka al-Arabiya as-Saudiya) occupies most of the Arabian Peninsula, the original homeland of the Arab people and of Islam.

Culture of Scotland

Historically, Scotland was referred to as Caledonia and by the Gaelic name Alba.

Culture of Senegal

Identification. The area that today is Senegal once was part of the West African Empire of Mali, Ghana, and Tekrur.

Culture of Serbia and Montenegro

Identification. The name Yugoslavia previously designated six republics (Serbia, Montenegro, Macedonia, Bosnia-Herzogovia, Croatia, and Slovenia), but now includes just Serbia and Montenegro.

Culture of Seychelles

Identification. The name "Seychelles" derives from the 1756 French expedition that led to the annexation of the islands.

Culture of Sierra Leone

Identification. The name "Sierra Leone" dates back to 1462, when Portuguese explorer Pedro da Cintra, sailing down the West African coast, saw the tall mountains rising up on what is now the Freetown Peninsula and called them the "Lion Mountains," or "Serra Lyoa." Successive visits by English sailors and later British colonization modified the name to "Sierra Leone." Despite distinctive regional variations in language and local traditions, Sierra Leoneans today are united by many factors, such as their shared lingua franca Krio, widespread membership in men's and women's social associations and societies, and even sporting events, especially when the national football (soccer) team plays.

Culture of Singapore

Identification. The place name "Singapore" is derived from Singa-pura ("City of the Lion"), a commonly used term since the fourteenth century.

Culture of Slovakia

Identification. "Slovak" is derived from the Slovakian term for Slav: Slovan.

Culture of Slovenia

Slovenia is officially known as the Republic of Slovenia and called Slovenija by its residents.

Culture of Solomon Islands

Melanesia; Melanesians; Wantoks ("one people," people from the Melanesian region sharing certain characteristics, especially the use of pidgin English).

Culture of Somalia

Identification. Somalia was known to the ancient Egyptians as the Land of Punt.

Culture of South Africa

Identification. South Africa is the only nation-state named after its geographic location; there was a general agreement not to change the name after the establishment of a constitutional nonracial democracy in 1994.

Culture of Spain

Location and Geography. Spain occupies about 85 percent of the Iberian peninsula, with Portugal on its western border.

Culture of Sri Lanka

Identification. The official name of the nation is the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka.

Culture of Sudan

In Arabic, it is called Jumhuriyat as-Sudan, or simply as-Sudan.

Culture of Suriname

Identification. The name "Suriname" (Sranan, Surinam) may be of Amerindian origin.

Culture of Swaziland

Identification. The Swazi nation is named for Mswati II, who became king in 1839.

Culture of Sweden

Identification. The people who came to be called Swedes were mentioned by the Roman historian Tacitus in 98 C.E.

Culture of Switzerland

Switzerland is a federation of twenty-six states called cantons (six are considered half cantons). There are four linguistic regions: German-speaking (in the north, center, and east), French-speaking (in the west), Italian-speaking (in the south), and Romansh-speaking (a small area in the southeast).

Culture of Syria

Identification. Syria is the name that was given to the region by the Greeks and Romans and probably derives from the Babylonian suri.

Culture of Taiwan

Identification. Over four-fifths of the people are descendants of Han Chinese settlers who came to the island in the seventeenth through nineteenth centuries from southeastern China.

Culture of Tajikistan


Culture of Tanzania

Identification. It is said that the mainland portion of what is now Tanzania was named by a British civil servant in 1920, from the Swahili words tanga (sail) and nyika (bright arid plain).

Culture of Thailand

Identification. The name "Thailand" is associated with the dominant ethnic group, Thai.