ETHNONYMS: Ajaju, Carijona, Guaque/Huaque, Mesaya, Murciélagos, Omaua/Umaua (and variants)


The dozens of inhabitants of a village lived together in a large circular house with a conical roof, ordered internally according to nuclear families. The slash-and-burn fields were nearby. Houses were of pole construction with leafthatched roofs. Separate square family dwellings became usual after about 1900, most with elevated floors and internal partitions.

Sociopolitical Organization

No reliable information about this subject is available. Open conflicts between the inhabitants of a village were avoided. In the twentieth century some shamans, accused of sorcery against their own people, were killed.


Friede, Juan (1948). "Algunos apuntes sobre los karijonahuaque del Cacueta." In Actes du XXVIIIème Congrès International des Américanistes, 255-263. Paris.

Koch-Grünberg, Theodor (1908). "Die Hianákoto-Umáua." Anthropos 3:83-124.

Llanos Vargas, Hector, and Roberto Pineda Camacho (1982). Ethnohistoria del Gran Caquetá. Bogotá: Banco de la República.

Robayo, Camilo Alberto (1986). "La flexión verbal del carijona." Master's thesis, University of the Andes, Bogota.

Robayo, Camilo Alberto (1989a). "En faisant une rame." Amerindia 14.

Robayo, Camilo Alberto (1989b). Lingüística y Literatura (Universidad de Antioquia).

Robayo, Camilo Alberto (1990). "Avances de morfología carijona." In Atlas etnolingüístico de Colombia. Bogotá: Instituto Caro y Cuervo.

Schindler, Helmut (1973). "Warum kann man den Iturari mit dem Gwaruma erschlagen." Zeitschrift für Ethnologie 98(2): 246-276.

Schindler, Helmut (1977a). "Carihona and Manakïnï: An Opposition in the Mythology of a Carib Tribe." In Carib-Speaking Indians: Culture, Society, and Language, edited by Eleen B. Basso, 66-75. Anthropological Papers of the University of Arizona, 28. Tucson.

Schindler, Helmut (1977b). "La etnohistoria de los carijona en el siglo XX." Montalban (Caracas: Universidad Católica Andres Bello) 6:551-557.

Schindler, Helmut (1979). Karihona-Erzählungen aus Manacaro. Collectanea Instituti Anthropos 18. St. Augustin: Anthropos Institut.


User Contributions:

Comment about this article, ask questions, or add new information about this topic: