ETHNONYMS: Ethnonyms in the earliest sources that possibly refer to the prehistoric Nivaclé are Guentusé, Mathlelá, and Lateshelechí-Maiceros. Other ethnic groups refer to them as Ashlushlai, Suhín, Sotirgaik, and Wentusij. Creoles call them by many other names that are based on the latter. In Argentina they are generally called Chulupí and in Paraguay Churupí.


Métraux, Alfred (1946). "Ethnography of the Chaco." In Handbook of South American Indians, edited by Julian H. Steward. Vol. 1, The Marginal Tribes , 197-370. Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin 143. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution.

Seelwische, José (1975). Na lhasimanash napi nivacle Gramática nivaclé. Asunción.

Súsnik, Branislava (1978). Los aborígenes del Paraguay: Etnología del Chaco Boreal y su periferia. Vol. 1. Asunción: Museo Etnográfico Andrés Barbero.

Wilbert, Johannes, and Karin Simoneau, eds. (1987). Folk Literature of the Nivaclé Indians. Los Angeles: University of California, Latin American Center.

MIGUEL CHASE-SARDI (Translated by Ruth Gubler)

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