ETHNONYMS: Auca (pejorative in English and Spanish), Huaorani, Huaugrani, Schiripuno, Ssabela, Tihuakuna, Tipituni, Wagrani, Wao, Waodani, Waog, Waograni, Warani


A very loosely defined, Ego-based kindred exists, but its significance and role have been weak. The kindred is an opportunistic system manipulated by Ego. Fluidity characterizes the individual's choice of which kin relationships he or she may stress at a given point in life. Kinship is traced bilaterally, and the terminological system is Dravidian.


Peeke, Catherine (1973). Preliminary Grammar of Auca. Norman, Okla.: Summer Institute of Linguistics.

Yost, James A. (1981a). "People of the Forest: The Waorani." In Ecuador: In the Shadow of the Volcanoes. Quito: Ediciones Libri Mundi.

Yost, James A. (1981b). "Twenty Years of Contact: The Mechanisms of Change in Wao ('Auca') Culture." In Cultural Transformations and Ethnicity in Modern Ecuador, edited by Norman E. Whitten, Jr. Urbana: University of Illinois Press.


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