Kin Groups and Descent. Descent is patrilineal. Patrilineally related males call each other phuki, a term usually equated with dāju-kijā (brothers), but it is secondarily applied to brothers' and cousins' family members also. Those who call each other phuki form an exogamous lineage. The lineage members form a group to worship a common tutelary deity, digu dya (represented by crude or carved stones), to observe birth and death pollution, and to carry out many rituals together. They may form the core of a labor exchange group in rural areas. In urbanized areas, there is a trend toward digu dya-worshiping units, often called digu dya pūjā guthi, splitting into smaller groups. Agnates split ritually and socially are called bhu or bā phuki. Affines reciprocate by repeated prestations at life-cycle rituals and at some festivals.
Kinship Terminology. Contemporary cousin terms follow the Hawaiian system. Many terms are taken from Indo-Aryan languages.