Albanians



PRONUNCIATION: al-BAY-nee-uhns

ALTERNATE NAMES: Shqipëtarë, Shqipëria

LOCATION: Albania; Macedonia; Greece

POPULATION: 3.5 million

LANGUAGE: Albanian

RELIGION: Evangelical Christianity (Seventh-Day Adventist, Jehovah's Witness); Roman Catholicism; Islam; Eastern Orthodox

1 • INTRODUCTION

The name "Albania" is derived from an ancient Illyrian tribe, the Albanoi, who inhabited part of modern-day Albania from around 1225 BC to AD 200. Albanians call their country Shqipëri (Skip-AIR-ee), "Land of the Eagle."

For almost 500 years, Albania was controlled by the Turks of the Ottoman Empire. The Albanians fought to resist being controlled by the Turks. Their national hero, Skanderbeg, led the Albanian people's resistance to the Ottoman Empire in the 1400s in at least twenty-five fierce battles. It was only after Skanderbeg died in 1468 that the Turks were able to claim victory. They then ruled for 445 years. The Turks were Muslims, and a majority of Albanians became Muslims during this period.

Albania won independence from the Ottoman Empire in 1912. Its present-day boundaries were confirmed following World War I (1914–18) at the Paris Peace Conference in 1919.

There are two major ethnic groups in Albania—the Ghegs and the Tosks. The main difference between the two groups is the dialect (variation on a language) of Albanian that they speak. The Ghegs live in the northern half of the country, and the Tosks live in the south.

As of the late 1990s, there were as many Albanians living just outside of Albania's borders as there were within it. Observers often describe Albania as a country completely surrounded by itself.

2 • LOCATION

Albania is one of the Balkan countries that form a peninsula bordered by the Adriatic, Aegean, and Black Seas. The word "Balkan" means mountain in Turkish, and the Balkan countries take their name from the Balkan Mountains.

Albania is about the same size as the state of Maryland. Albania's dimensions are 230 miles (370 kilometers) long by about 90 miles (144 kilometers) at its widest point. Albania's western edge borders the Adriatic Sea, about 50 miles (80 kilometers) from the "boot" of Italy. The coastline features some areas of scenic white sandy beaches.

Along the coast the summers are hot and dry, while the winters are rainy.

Away from the coast, most of Albania is covered with mountains. The North Albanian Alps reach 8,500 feet (2,590 meters) above sea level. There is more rainfall in the mountains than along the seacoast.

Albania's population numbers approximately 3.5 million, and is projected to reach 3.6 million by 2000. In 1950, almost 80 percent of the population lived on farms. By the mid-1990s, many farmers had moved to the cities, leaving only about 60 percent of the population living in rural areas.

3 • LANGUAGE

Albanian (Shqip) is one of Europe's oldest languages. It is one of the nine Indo-European languages. Albanian has seven vowel sounds: a (ah), e (eh), i (ee), o (oh), u (oo), ë (uh), and y (ew). When ë appears at the end of a word, it is sometimes silent.

Albanian uses the same alphabet as English, and adds the letter ç, representing the ch sound.

Albanians

ENGLISH ALBANIAN PRONUNCIATION
one një nyUH
two dy dEW
three tre trEH
four katër KAHT-uhr
five pesë pEHS
six gjashtë JASH-tuh
seven shtatë sh-TAHT
eight tetë tEHt
nine nënd nUHnd
ten dhgetë duh-YEHT

The two main Albanian groups—the Ghegs in the north and the Tosks in the south—both speak Albanian but use different pronunciations. For example, when speaking the word është (is), a Tosk would say EH-shtah, but a Gheg would say AH-sht. Until World War II (1939–45), Gheg was the dominant dialect. After 1945, most political leaders were Tosks, and the government tried to make the Tosk dialect the standard. Many writers and political activitists spoke the Gheg dialect, and they kept it alive in the north of the country.

Many Albanians speak Italian because Italian television programs are broadcast in Albania. Southern Albania is near Greece, so many Albanians there speak and understand Greek. Young people, especially in the capital of Tiranë, understand some English.

4 • FOLKLORE

Fairies, snakes, and dragons are among the main figures in Albanian mythology. Characters in Albanian folklore include the kucedër (a snake or dragon with many heads), the shtrigë or shpriga (witch), and the stuhi (a flame-throwing winged being that guards treasures). Zana are mythical female figures who help mountain folk in distress. To call someone a kukudh is the ultimate insult, since it means "a dwarf with seven tails who can't find rest in his grave."

5 • RELIGION

Albania has no official state religion. The communist government (in power from 1946 to 1992) outlawed religion in 1967, and confiscated (took away) all church property. Freedom of religion in Albania was not restored until 1989–90. More than 70 percent of Albanians are Muslims. Muslims are followers of the religion known as Islam.

Islam has five "pillars," or practices, that must be observed by all Muslims: (1) praying five times a day; (2) giving alms (money or food), or zakat, to the poor; (3) fasting from dawn to dusk during the month of Ramadan; (4) making the pilgrimage, or hajj, to Mecca; and (5) reciting the shahada ("ashhadu an la illah ila Allah wa ashhadu in Muhammadu rasul Allah" ). This phrase means "I witness that there is no god but Allah and that Muhammad is the prophet of Allah."

About 20 percent of Albanians follow Christianity as members of Evangelical, Eastern Orthodox, and Roman Catholic churches.

6 • MAJOR HOLIDAYS

Albanian Muslims observe Ramadan and the holy days of Islam. Ramadan, a month of fasting from dawn to dusk, occurs in early January. Albanian Christians celebrate traditional holidays such as Christmas and Easter. Another holiday, Dita e Verës (Spring Day), comes from an ancient pagan holiday and is still celebrated in mid-March. Albanians throughout the world commemorate November 28 as Albanian Independence Day ( Dita e Flamurit ).

7 • RITES OF PASSAGE

Most Albanians mark the major life events, including birth, marriage, and death, within either the Muslim or Christian religious tradition.

Albania has no funeral parlors. Wakes for the deceased are generally held at home for a period of two or three days before burial.

8 • RELATIONSHIPS

The Albanians are very expressive people. They commonly emphasize their statements by gesturing with their hands, shrugging their shoulders, and rolling their eyes upwards. When they want to respond "no" to a question, Albanians might nod their heads or shake their index fingers. To answer "yes," they might shake their head.

When two Albanian men meet, they embrace (hug) and kiss each other on the cheeks. It is common for them to walk along together with their arms linked. Men and women limit their greetings to a handshake; kissing in public is considered scandalous.

There is a greeting ritual when entering the home of an Albanian family. A female member of the host family serves the guest a qerasje (kehr-AHS-jeh) or treat. This consists of liko (LEEK-oh), a jam-like sweet, and a drink, such as Turkish coffee. It is considered rude to refuse these refreshments. However, it is acceptable to refuse the offer of a cigarette. The visitor then inquires about the health of each member of the host's family. Then the hostess inquires about the visitor's family. Only after this exchange is completed do people relax and begin normal conversation.

Common Greetings
Common Greetings

English Albanian Pronunciation
Hello Tungjatjeta tune-jat-YET-ah
Good morning Mirëmëngjes meer-mihn-JEHS
Good afternoon Merëdita meer DEE tah
Yes Po pOH
No Jo jOH
Thank you Faleminderit FA-leh-meen-DEH-reet
Do you speak English? A flisni anglisht? ah FLEAS-nee ahn-GLEESHT?

When an Albanian gives the besa (BEH-sah)—pledged word or promise—it is considered sacred. Here are some greetings in Albanian:

9 • LIVING CONDITIONS

Under communist rule from 1946 to 1992, many Albanians were forced to live in large, poorly constructed apartment buildings that provided only a couple of rooms for a family of four or more people. Many dwellings still lack central heating. There is a shortage of water, and there are frequent electric power outages in the larger cities. There is no regular rubbish collection, and cities are littered with trash.

There are no regulations against smoking in Albania. People feel free to smoke anywhere, including in public buildings, restaurants, and when visiting someone's home.

10 • FAMILY LIFE

Albanian families tend to be small, with the average being two children. The Albanian husband does not generally do housework.

Both husband and wife believe that the household is the wife's responsibility. Elderly parents often live with their children, where they are treated with honor and respect. From the time he is born, the oldest son is trained to become the head of family when his father dies.

11 • CLOTHING

The fustanella, or Albanian kilt, was common dress for men until the 1400s. Common villagers and rural people wore a fustanella made from coarse linen or wool; more affluent men wore silk.

When Albania was ruled by the Ottoman Empire (1468–1912), many aspects of Turkish culture were adopted by Albanians. In rural areas, men may still wear the fez, a traditional Turkish cap, and a colorful cloth belt. Women may wear embroidered blouses in the Turkish style, with loose pants.

Traditional costume for women of southern Albania features a blouse with wide cuffs in fabric to match an embroidered vest. A pleated petticoat is worn under a full skirt, and an elaborately embroidered apron and sash complete the outfit. Gold chains cascade from the neckline, are gathered into the sash, and are tucked into a pocket at the right side of the skirt. A kerchief covers the woman's hair.

In the north, the sleeves of the blouse are wide, with lace embroidery along the edges. Embroidery on the apron is elaborate, but distinct from the style of southern Albanian women. Gold coins are worn on a headband and on several strands of necklace that adorn the bodice (upper part) of the dress.

In cities, conservative Western-style dress is more common. Albanians are modest, however. Neither men nor women wear shorts or other revealing clothing. Traditional clothing is seen mostly at theatrical or folk dance performances in cities.

12 • FOOD

Albanian cooking is influenced by the years of Turkish rule. Lamb, rather than beef or pork, is the most common meat. Lakror (LAHK-roar), a typical dish, is a mixture of eggs, vegetables or meat, and butter wrapped in thin, many-layered pastry sheets. Another popular food is fërgesë (FUHR-ges), a dish usually made with minced meat, eggs, and ricotta cheese. Bread is a major staple of the Albanian diet. In fact, the word for bread, bukë (bew-KUH), is the normal word for "meal." Many Albanians enjoy raki (rah-KEE), a clear, colorless brandy made from grapes.

13 • EDUCATION

About 88 percent of Albanians can read and write. This is one of the highest literacy rates in the Balkan region. School is mandatory from age seven through fifteen. The rulers of the Ottoman Empire forbade the teaching of the Albanian language until 1887; the first school (Mësonjtorja) that taught it was opened that year. Before then, all teaching was done in Turkish or Persian.

14 • CULTURAL HERITAGE

Albanians love music, and there are many symphony orchestras performing in cities in Albania. Albanian folk instruments include the civility (a long-necked two-stringed mandolin); the gërnetë (guhr-NET-uh), a type of clarinet; the gajda (gahj-dah) and bishnica (bish-NICK-ah), wind instruments; and the sharkia (shar-KEY-ah) and lahuta (la-HOO-tah), stringed instruments.

Ismail Kadarë is Albania's most famous writer. Kadarë's novel The General of the Dead Army was made into an Italian film in 1982.

15 • EMPLOYMENT

Since the end of the communist era (1946–92), a new spirit of enterprise has developed. Albanians have been quick to form their own businesses. Since 1992, Albanians have had a five-day work week, in contrast to the six-day work week under communism. Women make up over 40 percent of the labor force.

16 • SPORTS

Albania's favorite sport is soccer (commonly called "football" in Europe). Second to football is volleyball, in which both men's and women's teams have become regional champions. Basketball and tennis are becoming more and more popular. Chess continues to gain favor, especially with children.

17 • RECREATION

After a late afternoon nap, Albanians enjoy a leisurely stroll along their wide streets on their way to meet friends and relatives for a late dinner.

Albanians love storytelling. In coffee shops throughout the country, men can be found entertaining each other with humorous stories or heroic tales. Television programs broadcast from Italy are also very popular.

Classical music performances are well attended in Albania, and discos (dance clubs) are popular with teenagers and young adults.

18 • CRAFTS AND HOBBIES

Albanian women and girls are known for qëndisje (kuhn-DIS-jeh), elaborate embroidery created to decorate their dwellings. Using a small loom known as a vegël (VEH-guhl), they weave colorful rugs. Albanians produce sweaters, socks, gloves, and other items, using wool, cotton, acrylics, and fur. Lace-making, ounë me grep (WEE-nuh MEH-grehp), is another traditional folk art.

Men usually work with metals such as copper, brass, and aluminum to craft decorative plates, wall hangings, and utensils. Women are increasingly involved with pottery, creating unique useful and sculptural pieces.

19 • SOCIAL PROBLEMS

The democratically elected government of President Sali Berisha has been accused of using some of the same dictatorial methods as the former communist government. It has been accused of silencing political dissent, restricting freedom of the press, and rigging the national elections. Journalists who strongly criticize the government can be heavily fined or imprisoned. Human rights groups charge that some have even been tortured.

Albanian television and radio programming reflects the official positions of the government.

20 • BIBLIOGRAPHY

Albania—In Pictures. Minneapolis: Lerner Publications, 1995.

Hall, Derek R. Albania and the Albanians. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1994.

Hutchins, Raymond. Historical Dictionary of Albania. Lanham, Md.: Scarecrow Press, Inc., 1996.

Sherer, Stan. Long Life to Your Children!: A Portrait of High Albania. Boston: University of Massachusetts Press, 1997.

Wright, David K. Albania. Chicago: Children's Press, 1997.

Zickel, Raymond E., and Walter R. Iwaski. Albania: A Country Study. 2nd ed. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Govt. Printing Office, 1994.

WEBSITES

Albanian.com . [Online] Available http://www.albanian.com , 1998.

Encyclopaedia Britannica. [Online] Available http://www.albania.co.uk/ , 1998.

Frosina Information Network. [Online] Available http://www.frosina.org , 1998.

World Travel Guide. [Online] Available http://www.wtgonline.com/country/al/gen.html , 1998.



Also read article about Albanians from Wikipedia

User Contributions:

1
wita
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Oct 11, 2009 @ 1:01 am
cool this is awesomeo it was a reat help with my assignment thanks buddies
2
MentalFunhouse
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Dec 7, 2009 @ 8:08 am
What an excelent website! It's perfect for this proejct that I'm working on. Thank you!
3
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May 3, 2010 @ 10:10 am
I learned alot. I love this site. I think this is amazingly awesome. Continue the work. Thanks.
4
suesan
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Jul 16, 2010 @ 11:11 am
thanks you guys, this really helped me to understand my husband and his family more. i am a southern african american who is married to an albanian and there are major cultural differences. this helped me to see why he feels so strongly about certain things.
5
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Aug 27, 2010 @ 2:14 pm
I think to describe kissing in public as 'scandalous' is a little far fetched! It is probably not considered proper for a male to passionately kiss his girlfriend in public (as in many cultures), but kissing family members or friends on the cheeks is very common (between male and female too)! This piece is generally well informed. Just thought I would add my own take since I have been married to an Albanian for 5 years and have been there 7 times :)
6
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Dec 11, 2010 @ 3:15 pm
My partner Lulzim is Albanian, and i have visited the country several times ,he can be a little bossy at times and true to form does not do any housework..but he is quite softhearted and passionate when he talks about his home ..This site has helped me understand a little more of the Albanian way of life.falimenderit!
7
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Dec 22, 2010 @ 3:15 pm
hi i just like to add one of the traditional sports which is i would say the favirote) in albanian culture is dominos it has been favoured by the men for many many years and is still as popular today men will sit around a table with coffees raki and cigerattes and enjoy this game untill early hours of the morning.
8
Adelaida
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Dec 23, 2010 @ 9:21 pm
I'm Albanian and yes most of the things are true. My dad never does house work he always thinks its my responsibility to do all the housework and my moms. I think that is unfair but whatever. I have been to Albania millions of times. I go there every summer. Yes it is very how and the best beach to go to is Orikum or Sarande or Vlore. They are fun i go to Vlora all the time. The water is warm-ish and clean, unlike the ocean in the Untied States. But Wildwwod is fun here. That is wat i know from being Albanian and i know a lot more but long story's
9
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Aug 20, 2011 @ 4:04 am
I think the United State of America is a great and bless country. I love to go and live there. I have applied for 19 years lottery and I hope one year I can win. I am sure that I win to go in this beautiful and blessed country. Long Live America.
10
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Aug 20, 2011 @ 4:04 am
I think the United State of America is a great and bless country. I love to go and live there. I have applied for 19 years lottery and I hope one year I can win. I am sure that I win to go in this beautiful and blessed country. Long Live America.
11
Connie
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Dec 2, 2011 @ 1:13 pm
I am doing holidays around the world and would like a craft idea I can do from Albaina. Please give me some ideas for ages 5 & 6.

Thank you
12
christine
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Dec 22, 2011 @ 3:15 pm
thank you.. this very informative web page has helped me to understand my Albanian dashur much better!! Falimenderit!!
13
erin
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Dec 18, 2012 @ 6:06 am
Pershendetje.I am Albanian and yes Albanians can be bossy and don't do housework but they take good care of their families and are very responsible and have a good-hart and yes women and men can kiss each other when they are family and close friends for the young generation. But they do the burial the next day they don't wait for two or three days.
14
amna
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Jan 14, 2013 @ 7:19 pm
this help me on my work i love the information they put on this
thanks :)
15
sefer
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Aug 25, 2014 @ 5:05 am
Most of the information is correct and it can be very helpful for getting a general idea of albanians. I assume that the text is written before the 2000 cuz some of the problems, like the electricity, is resolved and a of progress has been made by the government. Anyway,whoever decides to visit Albania and albanian cities around Albania (such as Gostivar, Tetovo, Shkupi, Kercova, Struga, Dibra, Kumanova in MAcedonia or Kosovo) wont be disappointed by the hospitality of the albanians and the wonderful places that they will see...

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