The Democratic Republic of the Congo (DROC) was formerly known as Zaire. This chapter begins with an overview article on the people of the DROC (the Congolese). Six ethnic groups account for more than 69 percent of the population. One of these groups, the Azande, is profiled in this chapter. Other African groups living in the DROC and profiled elsewhere include the Tutsi (see the chapter on Burundi in this volume) and the Hutu (see the chapter on Uganda in Volume 9). Another group, the Bakongo, is profiled in the chapter on Republic of Congo in this volume. In the densely forested center of the country (the cuvette) are about 80,000–100,000 Pygmies, including the Efe and Mbuti profiled in this chapter. Non-Africans living in the DROC number around 200,000 and include Belgians, Greeks, Lebanese, and Asian Indians.