Nigeria






Culture Name

Nigerian

Orientation

Identification. Though there is archaeological evidence that societies have been living in Nigeria for more than twenty-five hundred years, the borders of modern Nigeria were not created until the British consolidated their colonial power over the area in 1914.

The name Nigeria was suggested by British journalist Flora Shaw in the 1890s. She referred to the area as Nigeria, after the Niger River, which dominates much of the country's landscape. The word niger is Latin for black.

More than 250 ethnic tribes call present-day Nigeria home. The three largest and most dominant ethnic groups are the Hausa, Yoruba, and Igbo (pronounced ee-bo). Other smaller groups include the Fulani, Ijaw, Kanuri, Ibibio, Tiv, and Edo. Prior to their conquest by Europeans, these ethnic groups had separate and independent histories. Their grouping together into a single entity known as Nigeria was a construct of their British colonizers. These various ethnic groups never considered themselves part of the same culture. This general lack of Nigerian nationalism coupled with an ever-changing and often ethnically biased national leadership, have led to severe internal ethnic conflicts and a civil war. Today bloody confrontations between or among members of different ethnic groups continue.

Location and Geography. Nigeria is in West Africa, along the eastern coast of the Gulf of Guinea, and just north of the equator. It is bordered on the west by Benin, on the north by Niger and Chad, and on the east by Cameroon. Nigeria covers an area of 356,669 square miles (923,768 square kilometers), or about twice the size of California.

Nigeria has three main environmental regions: savanna, tropical forests, and coastal wetlands. These environmental regions greatly affect the cultures of the people who live there. The dry, open grasslands of the savanna make cereal farming and herding a way of life for the Hausa and the Fulani. The wet tropical forests to the south are good for farming fruits and vegetables—main income producers for the Yoruba, Igbo, and others in this area. The small ethnic groups living along the coast, such as the Ijaw and the Kalabari, are forced to keep their villages small due to lack of dry land. Living among creeks, lagoons, and salt marshes makes fishing and the salt trade part of everyday life in the area.

The Niger and Benue Rivers come together in the center of the country, creating a "Y" that splits Nigeria into three separate sections. In general, this "Y" marks the boundaries of the three major ethnic groups, with the Hausa in the north, the Yoruba in the southwest, and the Igbo in the southeast.

Politically, Nigeria is divided into thirty-six states. The nation's capital was moved from Lagos, the country's largest city, to Abuja on 12 December 1991. Abuja is in a federal territory that is not part of any state. While Abuja is the official capital, its lack of adequate infrastructure means that Lagos remains the financial, commercial, and diplomatic center of the country.

Demography. Nigeria has the largest population of any African country. In July 2000, Nigeria's population was estimated at more than 123 million people. At about 345 people per square mile, it is also the most densely populated country in Africa. Nearly one in six Africans is a Nigerian. Despite the rampages of AIDS, Nigeria's population continues to grow at about 2.6 percent each year. The Nigerian population is very young. Nearly 45 percent of its people are under age fourteen.

With regard to ethnic breakdown, the Hausa-Fulani make up 29 percent of the population, followed by the Yoruba with 21 percent, the Igbo with

Nigeria
Nigeria
18 percent, the Ijaw with 10 percent, the Kanuri with 4 percent, the Ibibio with 3.5 percent, and the Tiv with 2.5 percent.

Major urban centers include Lagos, Ibidan, Kaduna, Kano, and Port Harcourt.

Linguistic Affiliations. English is the official language of Nigeria, used in all government interactions and in state-run schools. In a country with more than 250 individual tribal languages, English is the only language common to most people.

Unofficially, the country's second language is Hausa. In northern Nigeria many people who are not ethnic Hausas speak both Hausa and their own tribal language. Hausa is the oldest known written language in West Africa, dating back to before 1000 C.E.

The dominant indigenous languages of the south are Yoruba and Igbo. Prior to colonization, these languages were the unifying languages of the southwest and southeast, respectively, regardless of ethnicity. However, since the coming of the British and the introduction of mission schools in southern Nigeria, English has become the language common to most people in the area. Today those who are not ethnic Yorubas or Igbos rarely speak Yoruba or Igbo.

Pidgin, a mix of African languages and English, also is common throughout southern Nigeria. It basically uses English words mixed into Yoruban or Igbo grammar structures. Pidgin originally evolved from the need for British sailors to find a way to communicate with local merchants. Today it is often used in ethnically mixed urban areas as a common form of communication among people who have not had formal education in English.

Symbolism. Because there is little feeling of national unity among Nigeria's people, there is little in terms of national symbolism. What exists was usually created or unveiled by the government as representative of the nation. The main national symbol is the country's flag. The flag is divided vertically into three equal parts; the center section is white, flanked by two green sections. The green of the flag represents agriculture, while the white stands for unity and peace. Other national symbols include the national coat of arms, the national anthem, the National Pledge (similar to the Pledge of Allegiance in the United States), and Nigeria's national motto: Peace and Unity, Strength and Progress.

History and Ethnic Relations

Emergence of the Nation. Every ethnic group in Nigeria has its own stories of where its ancestors came from. These vary from tales of people descending from the sky to stories of migration from far-off places. Archaeologists have found evidence of Neolithic humans who inhabited what is now Nigeria as far back as 12,000 B.C.E.

The histories of the people in northern and southern Nigeria prior to colonization followed vastly different paths. The first recorded empire in present-day Nigeria was centered in the north at Kanem-Borno, near Lake Chad. This empire came to power during the eighth century C.E. By the thirteenth century, many Hausa states began to emerge in the region as well.

Trans-Sahara trade with North Africans and Arabs began to transform these northern societies greatly. Increased contact with the Islamic world led to the conversion of the Kanem-Borno Empire to Islam in the eleventh century. This led to a ripple effect of conversions throughout the north. Islam brought with it changes in law, education, and politics.

The trans-Sahara trade also brought with it revolutions in wealth and class structure. As the centuries went on, strict Islamists, many of whom were poor Fulani, began to tire of increasing corruption, excessive taxation, and unfair treatment of the poor. In 1804 the Fulani launched a jihad, or Muslim holy war, against the Hausa states in an attempt to cleanse them of these non-Muslim behaviors and to reintroduce proper Islamic ways. By 1807 the last Hausa state had fallen. The Fulani victors founded the Sokoto Caliphate, which grew to become the largest state in West Africa until its conquest by the British in 1903.

In the south, the Oyo Empire grew to become the most powerful Yoruban society during the sixteenth century. Along the coast, the Edo people established the Benin Empire (not to be confused with the present-day country of Benin to the west), which reached its height of power in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries.

As in the north, outsiders heavily influenced the societies of southern Nigeria. Contact with Europeans began with the arrival of Portuguese ships in 1486. The British, French, and Dutch soon followed. Soon after their arrival, the trade in slaves replaced the original trade in goods. Many of the coastal communities began selling their neighbors, whom they had captured in wars and raids, to the Europeans in exchange for things such as guns, metal, jewelry, and liquor.

The slave trade had major social consequences for the Africans. Violence and intertribal warfare increased as the search for slaves intensified. The increased wealth accompanying the slave trade began to change social structures in the area. Leadership, which had been based on tradition and ritual, soon became based on wealth and economic power.

After more than 350 years of slave trading, the British decided that the slave trade was immoral and, in 1807, ordered it stopped. They began to force their newfound morality on the Nigerians. Many local leaders, however, continued to sell captives to illegal slave traders. This lead to confrontations with the British Navy, which took on the responsibility of enforcing the slave embargo. In 1851 the British attacked Lagos to try to stem the flow of slaves from the area. By 1861 the British government had annexed the city and established its first official colony in Nigeria.

As the nonslave trade began to flourish, so, too, did the Nigerian economy. A new economy based on raw materials, agricultural products, and locally manufactured goods saw the growth of a new class of Nigerian merchants. These merchants were heavily influenced by Western ways. Many soon became involved in politics, often criticizing chiefs for keeping to their traditional ways. A new divide within

Central Ibadan, the second-largest city. Nigeria is the most densely populated country in Africa.
Central Ibadan, the second-largest city. Nigeria is the most densely populated country in Africa.
the local communities began to develop, in terms of both wealth and politics. Because being a successful merchant was based on production and merit, not on traditional community standing, many former slaves and lower-class people soon found that they could advance quickly up the social ladder. It was not unusual to find a former slave transformed into the richest, most powerful man in the area.

Christian missionaries brought Western-style education to Nigeria as Christianity quickly spread throughout the south. The mission schools created an educated African elite who also sought increased contact with Europe and a Westernization of Nigeria.

In 1884, as European countries engaged in a race to consolidate their African territories, the British Army and local merchant militias set out to conquer the Africans who refused to recognize British rule. In 1914, after squelching the last of the indigenous opposition, Britain officially established the Colony and Protectorate of Nigeria.

National Identity. The spread of overt colonial control led to the first and only time that the ethnic groups in modern Nigeria came together under a commonly felt sense of national identity. The Africans began to see themselves not as Hausas, Igbos, or Yorubas, but as Nigerians in a common struggle against their colonial rulers.

The nationalistic movement grew out of some of the modernization the British had instituted in Nigeria. The educated elite became some of the most outspoken proponents of an independent Nigeria. This elite had grown weary of the harsh racism it faced in business and administrative jobs within the government. Both the elite and the uneducated also began to grow fearful of the increasing loss of traditional culture. They began movements to promote Nigerian foods, names, dress, languages, and religions.

Increased urbanization and higher education brought large multiethnic groups together for the first time. As a result of this coming together, the Nigerians saw that they had more in common with each other than they had previously thought. This sparked unprecedented levels of interethnic teamwork. Nigerian political movements, media outlets, and trade unions whose purpose was the advancement of all Nigerians, not specific ethnic groups, became commonplace.

As calls for self-determination and a transfer of power into the hands of Nigerians grew, Britain began to divest more power into the regional governments. As a result of early colonial policies of divide and conquer, the regional governments tended to be drawn along ethnic lines. With this move to greater regional autonomy, the idea of a unified Nigeria became to crumble. Regionally and ethnically based political parties sprang up as ethnic groups began to wrangle for political influence.

Ethnic Relations. Nigeria gained full independence from Britain on 1 October 1960. Immediately following independence, vicious fighting between and among political parties created chaos within the fledgling democracy. On 15 January 1966 a group of army officers, most of whom were Igbo, staged a military coup, killing many of the government ministers from the western and northern tribes. Six months later, northern forces within the military staged a countercoup, killing most of the Igbo leaders. Anti-Igbo demonstrations broke out across the country, especially in the north. Hundreds of Igbos were killed, while the rest fled to the southeast.

On 26 May 1967 the Igbo-dominated southeast declared it had broken away from Nigeria to form the independent Republic of Biafra. This touched off a bloody civil war that lasted for three years. In 1970, on the brink of widespread famine resulting from a Nigeria-imposed blockade, Biafra was forced to surrender. Between five hundred thousand and two million Biafran civilians were killed during the civil war, most dying from starvation, not combat.

Following the war, the military rulers encouraged a national reconciliation, urging Nigerians to once again become a unified people. While this national reconciliation succeeded in reintegrating the Biafrans into Nigeria, it did not end the problems of ethnicity in the country. In the years that followed, Nigeria was continually threatened by disintegration due to ethnic fighting. These ethnic conflicts reached their height in the 1990s.

After decades of military rule, elections for a new civilian president were finally held on 12 June 1993. A wealthy Yoruba Muslim named Moshood Abiola won the elections, beating the leading Hausa candidate. Abiola won support not only from his own people but from many non-Yorubas as well, including many Hausas. This marked the first time since Nigeria's independence that Nigerians broke from ethnically based voting practices. Two weeks later, however, the military regime had the election results annulled and Abiola imprisoned. Many commanders in the Hausa-dominated military feared losing control to a southerner. They played on the nation's old ethnic distrusts, hoping that a divided nation would be easier to control. This soon created a new ethnic crisis. The next five years saw violent protests and mass migrations as ethnic groups again retreated to their traditional homelands.

The sudden death of Nigeria's last military dictator, General Suni Abacha, on 8 June 1998 opened the door for a transition back to civilian rule. Despite age-old ethnic rivalries, many Nigerians again crossed ethnic lines when they entered the voting booth. On 22 February 1999 Olusegun Obasanjo, a Yoruba who ironically lacked support from his own people, won the presidential election. Obasanjo is seen as a nationalist who opposed ethnic divisions. However, some northern leaders believe he favors his own ethnic group.

Unfortunately, violent ethnic fighting in Nigeria continues. In October 2000, clashes between Hausas and supporters of the Odua People's Congress (OPC), a militant Yoruba group, led to the deaths of nearly a hundred people in Lagos. Many also blame the OPC for sparking riots in 1999, which killed more than a hundred others, most of them Hausas.

Urbanism, Architecture, and the Use of Space

With the influx of oil revenue and foreigners, Nigerian cities have grown to resemble many Western urban centers. Lagos, for example, is a massive, overcrowded city filled with traffic jams, movie theaters, department stores, restaurants, and supermarkets. Because most Nigerian cities grew out of much older towns, very little urban planning was used as the cities expanded. Streets are laid out in a confusing and often mazelike fashion, adding to the chaos for pedestrians and traffic. The influx of people into urban areas has put a strain on many services. Power cuts and disruptions of telephone service are not uncommon.

Nigerian architecture is as diverse as its people. In rural areas, houses often are designed to accommodate the environment in which the people live. The Ijo live in the Niger Delta region, where dry land is very scarce. To compensate for this, many Ijo homes are built on stilts over creeks and swamps, with travel between them done by boat. The houses are made of wood and bamboo and topped with a roof made of fronds from raffia palms. The houses are very airy, to allow heat and the smoke from cooking fires to escape easily.

Igbo houses tend to be made of a bamboo frame held together with vines and mud and covered with banana leaves. They often blend into the surrounding forest and can be easily missed if you don't know where to look. Men and women traditionally live in separate houses.

Much of the architecture in the north is heavily influenced by Muslim culture. Homes are typically geometric, mud-walled structures, often with Muslim markings and decorations. The Hausa build large, walled compounds housing several smaller huts. The entryway into the compound is via a large hut built into the wall of the compound. This is the hut of the father or head male figure in the compound.

Food and Economy

Read more about the Food and Cuisine of Nigeria.

Food in Daily Life. Western influences, especially in urban centers, have transformed Nigerian eating habits in many ways. City dwellers are familiar with the canned, frozen, and prepackaged foods found in most Western-style supermarkets. Foreign restaurants also are common in larger cities. However, supermarkets and restaurants often are too expensive for the average Nigerian; thus only the wealthy can afford to eat like Westerners. Most urban Nigerians seem to combine traditional cuisine with a little of Western-style foods and conveniences. Rural Nigerians tend to stick more with traditional foods and preparation techniques.

Food in Nigeria is traditionally eaten by hand. However, with the growing influence of Western culture, forks and spoons are becoming more common, even in remote villages. Whether people eat with their hand or a utensil, it is considered dirty and rude to eat using the left hand.

While the ingredients in traditional plates vary from region to region, most Nigerian cuisine tends to be based around a few staple foods accompanied by a stew. In the south, crops such as corn, yams, and sweet potatoes form the base of the diet. These vegetables are often pounded into a thick, sticky dough or paste. This is often served with a palm oilbased stew made with chicken, beef, goat, tomatoes, okra, onions, bitter leaves, or whatever meats and vegetables might be on hand. Fruits such as papaya, pineapples, coconuts, oranges, mangoes, and bananas also are very common in the tropical south.

In the north, grains such as millet, sorghum, and corn are boiled into a porridge-like dish that forms the basis of the diet. This is served with an oilbased soup usually flavored with onions, okra, and tomatoes. Sometimes meat is included, though among the Hausa it is often reserved for special occasions. Thanks to the Fulani cattle herders, fresh milk and yogurt are common even though there may not be refrigeration.

Alcohol is very popular in the south but less so in the north, where there is a heavy Islamic influence. Perhaps the most popular form of alcohol is palm wine, a tart alcoholic drink that comes from palm trees. Palm wine is often distilled further to make a strong, ginlike liquor. Nigerian breweries also produce several kinds of beer and liquor.

Food Customs at Ceremonial Occasions. Food plays a central role in the rituals of virtually all ethnic groups in Nigeria. Special ceremonies would not be complete without participants sharing in a meal. Normally it is considered rude not to invite guests to share in a meal when they visit; it is even more so if the visitors were invited to attend a special event such as a marriage or a naming ceremony.

Basic Economy. Until the past few decades, Nigeria had been self-sufficient in producing enough food to feed the population. However, as petroleum production and industry began to boom in Nigeria, much of the national resources were concentrated on the new industries at the expense of agriculture.

Homes and market near the Lagos Lagoon. Nigerian cities have grown to resemble western urban centers.
Homes and market near the Lagos Lagoon. Nigerian cities have grown to resemble western urban centers.
Nigeria, which had previously been a net exporter of agricultural products, soon needed to import vast amounts of food it once was able to produce for itself.

Since the 1960s, Nigeria's economy has been based on oil production. As a leading member of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), Nigeria has played a major role in influencing the price of oil on the world market. The oil-rich economy led to a major economic boom for Nigeria during the 1970s, transforming the poor African country into the thirtieth richest country in the world. However, falling oil prices, severe corruption, political instability, and economic mismanagement since then have left Nigeria no better off today than it was at independence.

Since the restoration of civilian rule in 1999, Nigeria has begun to make strides in economic reform. While hopes are high for a strong economic transformation, high unemployment, high inflation, and more than a third of the population living under the poverty line indicate it will be a long and difficult road.

Oil production has had some long-lasting ethnic consequences as well. While oil is Nigeria's largest industry in terms of output and revenue, oil reserves are found only in the Niger Delta region and along the coast. The government has long taken the oil revenues and dispersed them throughout the country. In this way, states not involved in oil production still get a share of the profits. This has led to claims that the minority ethnic groups living in the delta are being cheated out of revenue that is rightfully theirs because the larger ethnic groups dominate politics. Sometimes this has led to large-scale violence.

More than 50 percent of Nigeria's population works in the agriculture sector. Most farmers engage in subsistence farming, producing only what they eat themselves or sell locally. Very few agricultural products are produced for export.

Land Tenure and Property. While the federal government has the legal right to allocate land as it sees fit, land tenure remains largely a local issue. Most local governments follow traditional land tenure customs in their areas. For example, in Hausa society, title to land is not an absolute right. While communities and officials will honor long-standing hereditary rights to areas of land traditionally claimed by a given family, misused or abandoned land may be reapportioned for better use. Land also can be bought, sold, or rented. In the west, the Yoruban kings historically held all the land in trust, and therefore also had a say in how it was used for the good of the community. This has given local governments in modern times a freer hand in settling land disputes.

Traditionally, only men hold land, but as the wealth structure continues to change and develop in Nigeria, it would not be unheard of for a wealthy woman to purchase land for herself.

Major Industries. Aside from petroleum and petroleum-based products, most of the goods produced in Nigeria are consumed within Nigeria. For example, though the textile industry is very strong, nearly all the cloth produced in Nigeria goes to clothing the large Nigerian population.

Major agricultural products produced in Nigeria include cocoa, peanuts, palm oil, rice, millet, corn, cassava, yams, rubber, cattle, sheep, goats, pigs, timber, and fish. Major commercial industries in Nigeria include coal, tin, textiles, footwear, fertilizer, printing, ceramics, and steel.

Trade. Oil and petroleum-based products made up 95 percent of Nigeria's exports in 1998. Cocoa and rubber are also produced for export. Major export partners include the United States, Spain, India, France, and Italy.

Nigeria is a large-scale importer, depending on other countries for things such as machinery, chemicals, transportation equipment, and manufactured goods. The country also must import large quantities of food and livestock. Major import partners include the United Kingdom, the United States, Germany, France, and the Netherlands.

Social Stratification

Classes and Castes. The highest tier of Nigerian society is made up of wealthy politicians, businessmen, and the educated elite. These people, however, make up only a tiny portion of the Nigerian population. Many Nigerians today suffer under great poverty. The lower classes tend have little chance of breaking from the vicious cycle of poverty. Poor education, lack of opportunities, ill health, corrupt politicians, and lack of even small amounts of wealth for investment all work to keep the lower classes in their place.

In some Nigerian ethnic groups there is also a form of caste system that treats certain members of society as pariahs. The criteria for determining who belongs to this lowest caste vary from area to area but can include being a member of a minority group, an inhabitant of a specific village, or a member of a specific family or clan. The Igbo call this lower-caste group Osu. Members of the community will often discourage personal, romantic, and business contact with any member of the Osu group, regardless of an individual's personal merits or characteristics. Because the Osu are designated as untouchable, they often lack political representation, access to basic educational or business opportunities, and general social interaction. This kind of caste system is also found among the Yoruba and the Ibibios.

Symbols of Social Stratification. Wealth is the main symbol of social stratification in modern Nigeria, especially in urban areas. While in the past many ethnic groups held hereditary titles and traditional lineage important, money has become the new marker of power and social status. Today the members of the wealthy elite are easily identifiable by their fancy clothing and hairstyles and by their expensive cars and Western-style homes. Those in the elite also tend to have a much better command of English, a reflection of the higher quality of education they have received.

A man places skewers of meat in a circle around a fire. Rural Nigerians favor traditional foods and preparation techniques.
A man places skewers of meat in a circle around a fire. Rural Nigerians favor traditional foods and preparation techniques.

Wealth also can be important in marking social boundaries in rural areas. In many ethnic groups, those who have accumulated enough wealth can buy themselves local titles. For example, among the Igbo, a man or a woman who has enough money may claim the title of Ozo. For women, one of the requirements to become an Ozo is to have enough ivory, coral, and other jewelry for the ceremony. The weight of the jewelry can often exceed fifty pounds. Both men and women who want to claim the title must also finance a feast for the entire community.

Political Life

Government. Nigeria is a republic, with the president acting as both head of state and head of government. Nigeria has had a long history of coups d'états, military rule, and dictatorship. However, this pattern was broken on 29 May 1999 as Nigeria's current president, Olusegun Obasanjo, took office following popular elections. Under the current constitution, presidential elections are to be held every four years, with no president serving more than two terms in office. The Nigerian legislature consists of two houses: a Senate and a House of Representatives. All legislators are elected to four-year terms. Nigeria's judicial branch is headed by a Supreme Court, whose members were appointed by the Provisional Ruling Council, which ruled Nigeria during its recent transition to democracy. All Nigerians over age eighteen are eligible to vote.

Leadership and Political Officials. A wealthy political elite dominates political life in Nigeria. The relationship between the political elite and ordinary Nigerians is not unlike that between nobles and commoners. Nigerian leaders, whether as members of a military regime or one of Nigeria's short-lived civilian governments, have a history of doing whatever it takes to stay in power and to hold on to the wealth that this power has given them.

Rural Nigerians tend to accept this noble-peasant system of politics. Low levels of education and literacy mean that many people in rural areas are not fully aware of the political process or how to affect it. Their relative isolation from the rest of the country means that many do not even think of politics. There is a common feeling in many rural areas that the average person cannot affect the politics of the country, so there is no reason to try.

Urban Nigerians tend to be much more vocal in their support of or opposition to their leaders. Urban problems of housing, unemployment, health care, sanitation, and traffic tend to mobilize people into political action and public displays of dissatisfaction.

Political parties were outlawed under the Abacha regime, and only came back into being after his death. As of the 1999 presidential elections, there were three main political parties in Nigeria: the People's Democratic Party (PDP), the All Peoples Party (APP), and the Alliance for Democracy (AD). The PDP is the party of President Obasanjo. It grew out of support for opposition leaders who were imprisoned by the military government in the early 1990s. The PDP is widely believed to have received heavy financial assistance from the military during the 1999 elections. The APP is led by politicians who had close ties to the Abacha regime. The AD is a party led by followers of the late Moshood Abiola, the Yoruba politician who won the general election in 1993, only to be sent to prison by the military regime.

Social Problems and Control. Perhaps Nigeria's greatest social problem is the internal violence plaguing the nation. Interethnic fighting throughout the country, religious rioting between Muslims and non-Muslims over the creation of Shari'a law (strict Islamic law) in the northern states, and political confrontations between ethnic minorities and backers of oil companies often spark bloody confrontations that can last days or even months. When violence of this type breaks out, national and state police try to control it. However, the police themselves are often accused of some of the worst violence. In some instances, curfews and martial law have been imposed in specific areas to try to stem outbreaks of unrest.

Poverty and lack of opportunity for many young people, especially in urban areas, have led to major crime. Lagos is considered one of the most dangerous cities in West Africa due to its incredibly high crime rate. The police are charged with controlling crime, but their lack of success often leads to vigilante justice.

In some rural areas there are some more traditional ways of addressing social problems. In many ethnic groups, such as the Igbo and the Yoruba, men are organized into secret societies. Initiated members of these societies often dress in masks and palm leaves to masquerade as the physical embodiment of traditional spirits to help maintain social order. Through ritual dance, these men will give warnings about problems with an individual's or community's morality in a given situation. Because belief in witchcraft and evil spirits is high throughout Nigeria, this kind of public accusation can instill fear in people and cause them to mend their ways. Members of secret societies also can act as judges or intermediaries in disputes.

Military Activity. Nigeria's military consists of an army, a navy, an air force, and a police force. The minimum age for military service is eighteen.

The Nigerian military is the largest and best-equipped military in West Africa. As a member of the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS), Nigeria is the major contributor to the organization's military branch, known as ECOMOG. Nigerian troops made up the vast majority of the ECOMOG forces deployed to restore peace following civil wars in Liberia, Guinea-Bissau, and Sierra Leone. Public dissatisfaction with Nigeria's participation in the Sierra Leonean crisis was extremely high due to high casualty rates among the Nigerian soldiers. Nigeria pledged to pull out of Sierra Leone in 1999, prompting the United Nations to send in peacekeepers in an attempt stem the violence. While the foreign forces in Sierra Leone are now under the mandate of the United Nations, Nigerian troops still make up the majority of the peacekeepers.

Nigeria has a long-running border dispute with Cameroon over the mineral-rich Bakasi Peninsula, and the two nations have engaged in a series of cross-boarder skirmishes. Nigeria, Cameroon, Niger, and Chad also have a long-running border dispute over territory in the Lake Chad region, which also has led to some fighting across the borders.

Social Welfare and Change Programs

Severe poverty, human rights violations, and corruption are some of the major social ills that have plagued Nigeria for decades. Because Nigeria is in the midst of major political change, however, there is great hope for social reform in the country.

President Obasanjo's administration has been focusing much of its efforts on changing the world's image of Nigeria. Many foreign companies have been reluctant to invest in Nigeria for fear of political instability. Obasanjo hopes that if Nigeria can project the image of a stable nation, he can coax foreign investors to come to Nigeria and help bolster the country's failing economy. The World Bank and the International Monetary Fund (IMF) are also working with Nigeria to develop economic policies that will revitalize the nation's economy.

Obasanjo also says that rooting out corruption in all levels of government is one of his top priorities.

A man sells patterned cloth at a market. Nigerians are expert dyers, weavers, and tailors.
A man sells patterned cloth at a market. Nigerians are expert dyers, weavers, and tailors.
He signed the Anti-Corruption Act in June 2000, creating a special commission for investigating charges of corruption brought by ordinary Nigerians against government officials.

According to Amnesty International's 2000 report, Nigeria's new government continues to make strides in improving human rights throughout the country, most notably in the release of political prisoners. However, the detention of journalists critical of the military and reports of police brutality continue to be problems. Foreign governments and watchdog organizations continue to press the Nigerian government for further human rights reforms.

Gender Roles and Statuses

Division of Labor by Gender. In general, labor is divided in Nigerian society along gender lines. Very few women are active in the political and professional arenas. In urban areas, increasing numbers of women are becoming involved in the professional workforce, but they are greatly outnumbered by their male counterparts. Women who do manage to gain professional employment rarely make it into the higher levels of management.

However, women in Nigeria still play significant roles in the economy, especially in rural areas. Women are often expected to earn significant portions of the family income. As a rule, men have little obligation to provide for their wives or children. Therefore women have traditionally had to farm or sell homemade products in the local market to ensure that they could feed and clothe their children. The division of labor along gender lines even exists within industries. For example, the kinds of crops that women cultivate differ from those that men cultivate. In Igbo society, yams are seen as men's crops, while beans and cassava are seen as women's crops.

The Relative Status of Women and Men. Modern Nigeria is a patriarchal society. Men are dominant over women in virtually all areas. While Nigeria is a signatory to the international Convention on Equality for Women, it means little to the average Nigerian woman. Women still have fewer legal rights than men. According to Nigeria's Penal Code, men have the right to beat their wives as long as they do not cause permanent physical injury. Wives are often seen as little more than possessions and are subject to the rule of their husbands.

However, women can exercise influence in some areas. For example, in most ethnic groups, mothers and sisters have great say in the lives of their sons and brothers, respectively. The blood relationship allows these women certain leeway and influence that a wife does not have.

Marriage, Family, and Kinship

Marriage. There are three types of marriage in Nigeria today: religious marriage, civil marriage, and traditional marriage. A Nigerian couple may decide to take part in one or all of these marriages. Religious marriages, usually Christian or Muslim, are conducted according to the norms of the respective religious teachings and take place in a church or a mosque. Christian males are allowed only one wife, while Muslim men can take up to four wives. Civil official weddings take place in a government registry office. Men are allowed only one wife under a civil wedding, regardless of religion. Traditional marriages usually are held at the wife's house and are performed according to the customs of the ethnic group involved. Most ethnic groups traditionally allow more than one wife.

Depending on whom you ask, polygamy has both advantages and disadvantages in Nigerian society. Some Nigerians see polygamy as a divisive force in the family, often pitting one wife against another. Others see polygamy as a unifying factor, creating a built-in support system that allows wives to work as a team.

While Western ways of courtship and marriage are not unheard of, the power of traditional values and the strong influence of the family mean that traditional ways are usually followed, even in the cities and among the elite. According to old customs, women did not have much choice of whom they married, though the numbers of arranged marriages are declining. It is also not uncommon for women to marry in their teens, often to a much older man. In instances where there are already one or more wives, it is the first wife's responsibility to look after the newest wife and help her integrate into the family.

Many Nigerian ethnic groups follow the practice of offering a bride price for an intended wife. Unlike a dowry, in which the woman would bring something of material value to the marriage, a bride price is some form of compensation the husband must pay before he can marry a wife. A bride price can take the form of money, cattle, wine, or other valuable goods paid to the woman's family, but it also can take a more subtle form. Men might contribute money to the education of an intended wife or help to establish her in a small-scale business or agricultural endeavor. This form of bride price is often incorporated as part of the wooing process. While women who leave their husbands will be welcomed back into their families, they often need a justification for breaking the marriage. If the husband is seen as having treated his wife well, he can expect to have the bride price repaid.

Though customs vary from group to group, traditional weddings are often full of dancing and lively music. There is also lots of excitement and cultural displays. For example, the Yoruba have a practice in which the bride and two or three other women come out covered from head to toe in a white shroud. It is the groom's job to identify his wife from among the shrouded women to show how well he knows his wife.

Divorce is quite common in Nigeria. Marriage is more of a social contract made to ensure the continuation of family lines rather than a union based on love and emotional connections. It is not uncommon for a husband and wife to live in separate homes and to be extremely independent of one another. In most ethnic groups, either the man or the woman can end the marriage. If the woman leaves her husband, she will often be taken as a second or third wife of another man. If this is the case, the new husband is responsible for repaying the bride price to the former husband. Children of a divorced woman are normally accepted into the new family as well, without any problems.

Domestic Unit. The majority of Nigerian families are very large by Western standards. Many Nigerian men take more than one wife. In some ethnic groups, the greater the number of children, the greater a man's standing in the eyes of his peers. Family units of ten or more are not uncommon.

In a polygamous family, each wife is responsible for feeding and caring for her own children, though the wives often help each other when needed. The wives also will take turns feeding their husband so that the cost of his food is spread equally between or among the wives. Husbands are the authority figures in the household, and many are not used to their ideas or wishes being challenged.

In most Nigerian cultures, the father has his crops to tend to, while his wives will have their own jobs, whether they be tending the family garden, processing palm oil, or selling vegetables in the local market. Children may attend school. When they return home, the older boys will help their father with his work, while the girls and younger boys will go to their mothers.

Inheritance. For many Nigerian ethnic groups, such as the Hausa and the Igbo, inheritance is basically a male affair. Though women have a legal right to inheritance in Nigeria, they often receive nothing. This is a reflection of the forced economic independence many women live under. While their husbands are alive, wives are often responsible for providing for themselves and their children. Little changes economically after the death of the husband. Property and wealth are usually passed on to sons, if they are old enough, or to other male relatives, such as brothers or uncles.

For the Fulani, if a man dies, his brother inherits his property and his wife. The wife usually returns to live with her family, but she may move in with her husband's brother and become his wife.

Kin Groups. While men dominate Igbo society, women play an important role in kinship. All Igbos, men and women, have close ties to their mother's clan, which usually lives in a different village. When an Igbo dies, the body is usually sent back to his mother's village to be buried with his mother's kin. If an Igbo is disgraced or cast out of his community, his mother's kin will often take him in.

For the Hausa, however, there is not much of a sense of wide-ranging kinship. Hausa society is based on the nuclear family. There is a sense of a larger extended family, including married siblings and their families, but there is little kinship beyond that. However, the idea of blood being thicker than water is very strong in Hausa society. For this reason, many Hausas will try to stretch familial relationships to the broader idea of clan or tribe to diffuse tensions between or among neighbors.

Socialization

Infant Care. Newborns in Nigerian societies are regarded with pride. They represent a community's and a family's future and often are the main reason for many marriages.

Throughout Nigeria, the bond between mother and child is very strong. During the first few years of a child's life, the mother is never far away. Nigerian women place great importance on breast-feeding and the bond that it creates between mother and child. Children are often not weaned off their mother's milk until they are toddlers.

Children who are too young to walk or get around on their own are carried on their mother's backs, secured by a broad cloth that is tied around the baby and fastened at the mother's breasts. Women will often carry their children on their backs while they perform their daily chores or work in the fields.

Child Rearing and Education. When children reach the age of about four or five, they often are expected to start performing a share of the household duties. As the children get older, their responsibilities grow. Young men are expected to help their fathers in the fields or tend the livestock. Young women help with the cooking, fetch water, or do laundry. These tasks help the children learn how to become productive members of their family and community. As children, many Nigerians learn that laziness is not acceptable; everyone is expected to contribute.

While children in most Nigerian societies have responsibilities, they also are allowed enough leeway to be children. Youngsters playing with homemade wooden dolls and trucks, or groups of boys playing soccer are common sights in any Nigerian village.

In many Nigerian ethnic groups, the education of children is a community responsibility. For example,

Nigerian people at a market. Food plays a central role in the rituals of all ethnic groups in Nigeria.
Nigerian people at a market. Food plays a central role in the rituals of all ethnic groups in Nigeria.
in the Igbo culture the training of children is the work of both men and women, within the family and outside it. Neighbors often look after youngsters while parents may be busy with other chores. It is not strange to see a man disciplining a child who is not his own.

All Nigerian children are supposed to have access to a local elementary school. While the government aims to provide universal education for both boys and girls, the number of girls in class is usually much lower than the number of boys. Sending every child in a family to school can often put a lot of strain on a family. The family will lose the child's help around the house during school hours and will have to pay for uniforms and supplies. If parents are forced to send one child to school over another, many will choose to educate boys before girls.

Higher Education. Historically, Nigerians have been very interested in higher education. The lack of universities providing quality education equal to that in Britain was a major component of the social reforms that led to Nigeria's independence. Today there are forty-three universities in Nigeria. The majority of these are government-run, but the government has recently approved the creation of three private universities.

While Nigeria's system of higher education is the largest in Africa, the demand for higher education far exceeds the capacity of the facilities. There simply are not enough institutions to accommodate the demand. In 1998 only thirty-five thousand students were accepted to Nigerian universities out of a pool of more than four hundred thousand applicants.

Nigeria also has 125 technical training schools. The majority of these focus on polytechnic and agricultural training, with a few specializing in areas such as petroleum sciences and health.

Etiquette

Age is greatly respected in Nigeria. In an area where the average life expectancy is not very high, those who live into their senior years are seen as having earned special rights of respect and admiration. This is true of both men and women.

Socially, greetings are of the utmost importance. A handshake and a long list of well wishes for a counterpart's family and good health are expected when meeting someone. This is often true even if you have seen that person a short time earlier. Whether you are talking to a bank teller or visiting a friend, it is considered rude not to engage in a proper greeting before getting down to business.

Shaking hands, eating, or passing things with the left hand are unacceptable. The left hand is reserved for personal toiletries and is considered dirty.

Religion

Religious Beliefs. It is estimated that 50 percent of Nigerians are Muslim, 40 percent are Christian, and that the remaining 10 percent practice various indigenous religions.

While Muslims can be found in all parts of Nigeria, their strongest footholds are among the Hausa and the Yoruba. Islam in Nigeria is similar to Islam throughout the world. It is based on the teachings of the Prophet Muhammad, which are outlined in the Qur'an.

Christianity is most prevalent in the south of Nigeria. The vast majority of Igbo are Christians, as are many Yorubas. The most popular forms of Christianity in Nigeria include Anglican, Presbyterian, American Southern Baptist, and Methodist. Also, there are large pockets of Seventh-Day Adventists and Jehovah's Witnesses.

Conflict with the way some missionaries administered the churches during colonial times also created several breakaway African-Christian churches. Most of these adhere to the doctrines of Western churches but have introduced African music and tradition to their Masses. Some have even eased Christian restrictions on polygamy.

Relations between Christians and Muslims are tense in many areas. Since late 1999, numerous clashes between the two have led to thousands of deaths. The northern city of Kaduna has been the flash point for many of these riots, as local leaders discussed whether to institute Shari'a law in the region. Demonstrations by Christians against the idea soon led to violent confrontations with Muslims. The debate over Shari'a law and the violence accompanying it continue in many of the northern states.

While Islam and Christianity are the dominant religions in Nigeria, neither is completely free of influence from indigenous religions. Most people who consider themselves good Muslims or good Christians often also follow local religious practices. This makes up for perceived shortcomings in their religion. Most indigenous religions are based on a form of ancestor worship in which family members who have passed into the spirit world can influence things in the world of the living. This mixing of traditional ways with Islam has led to groups such as the Bori cult, who use spirit possession as a way to understand why people are suffering in this life. The mixing of traditional ways with Christianity has led to the development of the Aladura Church. Aladura priests follow basic Christian doctrine but also use prophecy, healing, and charms to ward off witchcraft.

Many Nigerians follow the teachings of purely indigenous religions. Most of these religions share the idea that one supreme god created the earth and its people, but has left people to decide their own paths in life. Followers of the traditional Yoruban religion believe that hundreds of spirits or minor gods have taken the place of the supreme god in influencing the daily lives of individuals. Many Yoruban slaves who were taken to the Caribbean and the Americas brought this religion with them. There it was used as the basis of Santeria and voodoo.

Because the vast majority of Igbos converted to Christianity during colonialism, few practice the traditional Igbo religion, which is based on hundreds of gods, not a single creator.

A man sits in front of his farmhouse in Toro, Nigeria. Traditionally, only men own land.
A man sits in front of his farmhouse in Toro, Nigeria. Traditionally, only men own land.

Religious Practitioners. According to Muslim and Christian traditions, officials in these religions tend to be male. For most indigenous religions, priests and priestesses are common. Traditional priests and priestesses get their power and influence from their ability to be possessed by their god or by their ability to tell the future or to heal. In the Igbo religion men serve as priests to Igbo goddesses, and women serve as priestesses to Igbo gods. While both men and women can rank high in the Yoruban religion, women usually are among the most respected of traditional priests.

Rituals and Holy Places. Because many of the indigenous religions are based on various spirits or minor gods, each with influence over a specific area of nature, many of the traditional rituals are based on paying homage to these gods and spirits. Likewise, the area of control for a spirit also marks the places that are holy to that spirit. For example, a tribe's water spirit may have a specific pond or river designated as its holy place. The Kalabari, Okrika, and Ikwerre tribes of the Niger Delta region all have festivals in honor of water spirits sacred to their peoples. The Yoruba hold a twenty-day Shango festival each year to honor their god of thunder. Many Igbo consider it bad luck to eat yams from the new harvest until after the annual Yam Festival, a harvest celebration held in honor of the Igbo earth goddess Ani.

Death and the Afterlife. Christian and Muslim Nigerians believe that following death, a person's soul is released and judged by God before hopefully going on to Heaven. Many traditional religions, especially those of the eastern tribes, believe in reincarnation. In these tribes, people believe that the dead will come back as a member of his or her mother's or sister's family. Many in-depth ceremonies are necessary to prepare the body before burial. For example, if the person was inflicted with some physical disability, steps would be taken to prevent it from being passed on to him in the next life. An infertile woman may have her abdomen cut open before burial or a blind man may have a salve made from special leaves placed over his eyes.

Regardless of religion, Nigerians bury their dead. This is customary among Christians and Muslims, but it also is based on traditional beliefs that the body should be returned to the earth that sustained it during life.

Muslims are buried so that their heads face the holy city of Mecca in Saudi Arabia. For others, it is customary to bury a man with his head turned toward the east, so he can see the rising sun. A woman is buried facing west, so she will know when the sun sets and when it is time to prepare dinner for her husband in the next life. People also cover the body with black earth during burial because many believe that red earth will result in skin blemishes in the next life.

The ethnic groups in eastern Nigeria believe that the more music and dancing at a funeral, the better that person's chances of a successful afterlife. The size of funerals depends on the social standing of the deceased. Men are expected to set aside money that will be used to ensure they have a properly elaborate funeral. Women, children, and adolescents tend to have much less elaborate funerals.

Medicine and Health Care

Nigerians, like people in many developing countries, suffer from widespread disease and a poor health care system. Malaria, HIV/AIDS, parasitic infections, and childhood diseases are rampant throughout the country. Widespread poverty also contributes to the poor level of health care, as many people shy away from modern treatments that are too expensive. Corruption at all levels of government makes it difficult for health care funding to trickle down to the average Nigerian. Underfunding and neglect have left many clinics and hospitals in poor physical condition and without modern equipment. Pharmacies, both state-run and private, regularly run out of medicines. Patients looking for cheaper remedies often turn to black-market vendors, who often sell expired or counterfeit drugs. There also is a shortage of qualified medical personnel to adequately treat the whole population.

In 2000, the estimated life expectancy of Nigerian men and women was fifty-one years. The estimated infant mortality rate was over 7 percent, or about seventy-four infant deaths for every thousand live births.

AIDS has extracted a devastating toll on Nigeria. The World Health Organization and UNAIDS estimated that 2.7 million Nigerian adults were living with AIDS or HIV in 1999. The vast majority of Nigerians who are HIV-positive do not know it. Some 1.7 million Nigerians had already died of the disease by the end of 1999. The primary mode of HIV transmission in Nigeria is through heterosexual intercourse.

Both Western and traditional forms of medicine are popular in Nigeria. Traditional medicine, also known as juju, is common at the rural level. Practitioners of juju use a variety of plants and herbs in their cures. Most families also have their own secret remedies for minor health problems.

Many rural people do not trust Western-style medicine, preferring instead to use traditional ways. In many instances the traditional medicine is very effective and produces fewer side effects than modern drugs. Most of modern medicine's prescription drugs grew out of traditional herbal remedies. However, there are conditions in which traditional medicine can do more harm than good. Sometimes this leads to conflict between the government-sponsored health care system and traditional ways. Some organizations are now looking at ways to combine the two in an attempt to coax people back into health centers.

The federal government is responsible for the training of health care workers and running nationwide health campaigns such as those aimed at fighting AIDS, Guinea worm infection, river blindness, and leprosy.

Secular Celebrations

Nigeria observes three secular national holidays and several officially recognized Muslim and Christian holidays when government, commerce, and banks are closed. The secular holidays are New Year's Day (1 January), Workers' Day (1 May), and National Day (1 October). The Christian holidays are Christmas (25 December), Good Friday, and Easter Monday. The Muslim holidays are Eid al-Fitr (the last day of Ramadan, the Muslim holy month of fasting), Tabaski, and Eid al-Moulid. Aside from Christmas, the religious holidays fall on different days each year.

The Arts and Humanities

Support for the Arts. Nigerian art traditionally served a social or religious purpose and did not exist for the sake of art per se. For example, dance was used to teach or to fulfill some ritualistic goal. Sculpture was used in blessings, in healing rituals, or to ward off bad luck. With increasing modernization, however, Nigerian art is becoming less oriented to a particular purpose. In some cases, Nigerians have abandoned whole forms of art because they no longer served a purpose. For example, the elaborate tombstones once widely produced by the Ibibio are becoming increasingly rare as Western-style cemeteries are replacing traditional burial grounds.

The government has recognized this decline in Nigerian art. In an attempt to promote Nigerian nationalism through art, it has launched some programs, such as the All-Nigeria Festival of Arts, to

Women engrave designs into yellow calabash gourds. Nigerian art traditionally served a social or religious purpose.
Women engrave designs into yellow calabash gourds. Nigerian art traditionally served a social or religious purpose.
revitalize the Nigerian art world. Many wealthy Nigerians looking to recapture their roots, as well as Western tourists and collectors looking for an African art experience, are willing to spend money on Nigerian art. This has led to a slight revival of the art industry.

Literature. Nigeria has a long and incredibly rich literary history. Nigerians are traditionally storytellers. Much of precolonial history in Nigeria is the result of stories handed down from generation to generation. With colonization and the introduction of reading, writing, and the English language, Nigerian storytellers soon began sharing their talents with a worldwide audience. Perhaps Nigeria's most famous writer is Wole Soyinka, who won the 1986 Nobel Prize for literature. His most famous works include A Dance of the Forests, The Swamp Dwellers, and The Lion and the Jewel. Other famous Nigerian authors include Chinua Achebe, whose Things Fall Apart is a favorite among Western schools as an example of the problems inflicted on African societies during colonization, and Ben Okri, whose novel The Famished Road won Britain's 1991 Booker Prize.

Graphic Arts. Nigeria is famous for its sculpture. The bronzework of the ancient cities of Ife and Benin can be found in museums all over the world. These areas in southern Nigeria still produce large amounts of bronze castings. Woodcarvings and terra-cotta sculptures also are popular.

Nigerians are expert dyers, weavers, and tailors. They produce massive quantities of beautiful, rich, and colorful textiles. However, the majority of these are sold primarily for everyday wear and not as examples of art.

Performance Arts. Dance and music are perhaps the two most vibrant forms of Nigerian art. Nigerian music is dependent on strong rhythms supplied by countless drums and percussion instruments. Highlife is a type of music heavily influenced by Western culture. It sounds like an Africanized version of American big band or ballroom music. Afro-beat combines African rhythms and melodies with jazz and soul. One of Nigeria's best-known Afro-beat artists, Fela Kuti, was heavily influenced by American artists such as James Brown. Palm wine music gets its name from the palm wine saloons where it is traditionally heard. Its fast-paced, frenzied rhythms reflect the rambunctious nature of many palm wine bars.

Perhaps Nigeria's most popular form of music is juju, which uses traditional drums and percussion instruments to back up vocals and complicated guitar work. Popular juju artists include King Sunny Ade, Ebenezer Obey, and Shina Peters.

The State of the Physical and Social Sciences

While Nigeria's system of higher education is better than most in Africa, many of its best and brightest students go to universities in the United States or Europe in search of better facilities and academic support. These students often stay abroad, where there are more opportunities to pursue their talents and to benefit economically. This loss of sharp and influential minds has left the physical and social sciences in a poorer state than they need be. The few sciences that are thriving in Nigeria, such as geology and petroleum sciences, are often headed by non-Nigerians, brought in by foreign companies that have contracts to exploit Nigeria's natural resources.

Bibliography

Achebe, Chinua. Things Fall Apart, 1959.

Achu, Kamala. Nigeria, 1992.

Adeeb, Hassan. Nigeria, 1996.

Ajayi, Omofolambo S. Yoruba Dance: The Semiotics of Movement and Body Attitude in a Nigerian Culture, 1998.

Anifowose, Remi. Violence and Politics in Nigeria: The Tiv and Yoruba Experience, 1982.

Awosika, V. O. A New Political Philosophy for Nigeria and Other African Countries, 1967.

Babajuma, Malomo. Nigeria, My Beloved Country, 1975.

Barkindo, Bawuro M. Studies in the History of Kano, 1983.

Central Intelligence Agency. CIA World Fact Book 2000, 2000.

Ellah, Francis J. Ali-Ogba: A History of the Ogba People, 1995.

Falola, Toyin. The History of Modern Nigeria, 1999.

Falola, Toyin, and Adebayo, Akanmu. Culture, Politics, and Money Among the Yoruba, 2000.

Forman, Brenda-Lu. The Land and People of Nigeria, 1972.

Hauss, Charles. Comparative Politics: Domestic Responses to Global Challenges, 2000.

Hodgkin, Thomas. Nigerian Perspectives, 1960.

Ikime, Obaro. The Fall of Nigeria: The British Conquest, 1982.

Levy, Patricia. Cultures of the World: Nigeria, 1996.

Maier, Karl. This House Has Fallen: Midnight in Nigeria, 2000.

Nnoromele, Salome. Life Among the Ibo Women of Nigeria, 1967.

Ojaide, Tanure. Great Boys: An African Childhood, 1948.

Owhonda, John. Nigeria: A Nation of Many Peoples, 1998.

Ransome-Kuti, Olikoye. "Who Cares for the Health of Africans? The Nigerian Case." Transcript of lecture given in Kaduna, Nigeria, on March 19, 1998, as part of the International Lecture Series on Population Issues sponsored by the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation, 1998.

Smith, Robert S. Kingdoms of the Yoruba, 1988.

Stremlau, John. "Ending Africa's Wars." Foreign Affairs (July/August 2000): 117–132.

Thomas, T. Ajayi. A History of Juju Music: A History of an African Popular Music from Nigeria, 1992.

Turtoe-Sanders, Patience. African Tradition in Marriage: An Insider's Perspective, 1998.

UNAIDS and World Health Organization. Epidemiological Fact Sheet on HIV/AIDS and Sexually Transmitted Infections: Nigeria, 2000.

Uwechue, Ralph. Reflections of the Nigerian Civil War, 1969.

Veal, Michael E. Fela: The Life and Times of an African Musical Icon, 2000.

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Williams, Jeff. "Nigeria." The Lonely Planet: West Africa, 1999.

—T IM C URRY



User Contributions:

bess
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Apr 29, 2006 @ 11:23 pm
Great narrative, insightful and very educating.
Thanks
Ajala Toyin Qudrat.
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Apr 30, 2006 @ 12:12 pm
I read the site and it is highly educative. Please, keep it up.
Larai
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May 29, 2006 @ 9:09 am
This has been quite an enlightening and interesting read.
Critical and concise. Good work!!!
Beecroft Adebukola
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Jul 22, 2006 @ 5:05 am
I was checking for social problems in nigeria in preparation for my coming 'nigerian people and society' exams and i found more than what i realy expected.This is so wonderful to behold that there is a site like this providing basic informations of this kind about my country.I have now come to realise that it is possible to live in a place for 20 years and not even know much as you feel you know about the place.This site has cleared my ignorance about so many things and i'm sure of blasting any question concerning this in my exams.Thank you so much for this highly informative site.
chidozie jk
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Jul 22, 2006 @ 6:18 pm
I was searching for more report on consequences of social change on education,religion, politics and economy of Nigeria.that took me to the room,i am satisfied with the information there,though some point was missing but i was able to make it up with some further research.thanks a lot for the work well done.
finally as an undergraduate, and for the good of other fellow student in diferent parts of the world,i will wish to ask for more information on this page.thanks.
Chidozie jk.
From NIGERIA.
Dep... of economics|social studies.
ismaila k aduragba
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Jul 30, 2006 @ 7:19 pm
sir/ma,the history is very concise,precise and understandable.it gives us knowledge aboutnigeria history and population.
vera
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Aug 5, 2006 @ 9:09 am
the site is very educative keep it up,i believe Nigeria will later change for better becouse i believe Nigeria is growing everyday.
Ekaete Fujah
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Aug 13, 2006 @ 4:16 pm
I was looking for information on Nigerian Architecture and stumble upon your article. I must commend you for your work which is very accurate in its content.
majekodunmi olusola,university of ibadan, nigeria
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Aug 18, 2006 @ 11:11 am
i had always wondered this type of write-up might be useless for a project, but you have changed my orientation today. thank you very much. i can now finish my assignment successfully and with happiness now.
EUPHEMIA
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Aug 25, 2006 @ 12:12 pm
VERY INTERESTING BUT COULD LIKE TO KNOW MORE ABOUT TURTOE SANDERS AFRICAN TRADITION IN MARRIAGE
THX
omowale
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Sep 4, 2006 @ 10:10 am
I am an English/Literature student,just thought i could get something to read about Nigeria and came accross this site. I got more than I expected. I must commend you, this is highly educative,please keep it up. Thank you.
erica ajieh
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Oct 12, 2006 @ 8:08 am
great article...very narrative and politically correct. Its very educative and its great to know that there are sites that provides accurate information about the Nigerian Culture...Keep up the good work.
Moyosore
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Oct 23, 2006 @ 5:17 pm
i was using this website for my s.s. project. my mom is from ibadan. this is a BIG help. pls keep it up. as the younger generation of naija, i love learning about my heritage.
ADEJO, Godwin Ojochogu
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Nov 1, 2006 @ 6:06 am
It is a top priority that every individual knows about his home, his people and culture. Most Nigerians (including myself until now) can not say much about our country. But this article has given me what I need to defend myself as a proper Nigerian not only by birth but also by the knowledge I've acquired through this article.
ADEJO, Godwin O.
Nasarawa State University, Keffi
adedoyin
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Jan 5, 2007 @ 3:03 am
YOU HAVE DONE A GREAT WORK PLS.KEEPUP. I WANT TO KNOW MORE ABOUT the role of english language in unifying the major ethnic group in nigeria. I WILL VERY GRAETFUL IF U CAN DO THIS. THANKS
prince TK
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Apr 19, 2007 @ 4:04 am
This page is really use full for us,I had known about nigeria and their culturs and all.Thanks lot
atlmuzikfanzinc
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Apr 22, 2007 @ 4:16 pm
This helped me out a lot on my research paper,a lot of interesting things that make me want to learn more.
dorris edosomwan
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May 4, 2007 @ 2:14 pm
I FOUND THIS ARTICLE A GREAT READ. WAS SEARCHING FOR INFORMATION ON NIGERIA'S ETHNICITY BUT FOUND MORE THAN I WAS LOOKINF FOR. THIS SITE IS VERY INFORMATIVE WITH SIMPLE AND CLEAR GRAMMAR. WELL DONE!!!
Abadariki joel Oladipupo
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May 5, 2007 @ 4:04 am
I read through this this site and find it quite interesting and useful keep it up
iyi azubike tochukwu
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Jun 8, 2007 @ 8:20 pm
This work is very pure ad precised. Detailed and accurate.
teebubble
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Jun 23, 2007 @ 11:11 am
Well written, good work and a very extensive research.
As much as I am proud to be Nigerian, I do feel ashamed when asked questions about Nigeria and I can't give an accurate answer.
Your site has been EXTREMELY educative.
I use to blame my 'Boring History teacher' in boarding school Ibadan for not knowing so much as I should about the Nigerian History.
However it is nothing to do with him, and it is easier to blame others so I had therefore made it MY responsibity to learn more about Nigeria as I can, and I came accross your site.
Thank you !!
teebubble 'UniBen 1986'
ijenya peace u.
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Jun 26, 2007 @ 6:06 am
Thanks so much for these information. For days, I have been spending all day on the net, looking for information pertaining Nigerian Architecture. Your site gave alot that i need. It gives insight to Nigerian Architecture. Thanks.
phauzat
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Jun 29, 2007 @ 9:21 pm
i found more than what i expect.keep it up.it is wonderful and educative.please send more information to my mail.
Maya Kemi Abimbola
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Jul 1, 2007 @ 6:18 pm
This site is extremely informative, and will be a great source to use for my first history class in college. My Survey of African-American History class is so in depth and full of information, butI found this site extremely helpful.
obinna
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Jul 5, 2007 @ 11:23 pm
i was on a term paper about nigerian traditional & modern architecture & i really needed some pictures depicting old house styles[traditional houses].but i found you after many thorough searches.thanks very much @ continue the good work of potraying our image.God bless .
Clara J.Benson Ikobirima
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Jul 7, 2007 @ 3:15 pm
well as a Nigerian i appreciate the fact that we are great people of Africa, and am very proud to be a Nigerian.
i am also glad to exhbit my culture as a Rivers state origin precisely Okrika and an African too.
thanx
rhoda
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Sep 21, 2007 @ 9:09 am
I will say a big thank you for educating and enligthing me on these case study, now i can say something on the peoples and culture of my country. by these more nigerian will represent their nation anywhere because they know they have something to say about their background.
Lillie
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Oct 17, 2007 @ 9:09 am
i realy hope this web site helps me a lott??? it will help me in a lot o f things like this report i need to do form engilish
Onabanjo Segun
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Oct 27, 2007 @ 7:19 pm
Being a forestry student at the Federal University of Technology, Akure in the south-west of the country,I was actually searching for an information on the responses of forest products to HIV in Nigeria when i came across this educating information. I must say kudos to you and your works cos u make all nigerian remember their source.
Pls, in ur next publication, do make it known to the whole wide world the issue of forestry about Nigeria.Thanks.
Onabanjo S.
FUTA.Akure.
Toyin Ajenifujah-Solebo
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Nov 13, 2007 @ 4:04 am
I am quite impressed that this kind of information is available on the web about Nigeria. The creators should keep it up, thumbs up.
john
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Dec 1, 2007 @ 6:06 am
iam quite pleased with this great job you are all doing.please keep it up! can you help us with the political culture of the nigerian people from pre-colonial through colonial to post-colonial era please.thanks for your understanding.
manju c r
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Jan 29, 2008 @ 12:00 am
I found the site to be of great use especially for non-nigerians wishing to know about the country or people like myself-doing research on a topic related to nigeria.Thank you.Kindly update the information posted on the site so that it continues to help people in future
pradeep ku,mar kuril
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Mar 27, 2008 @ 2:02 am
as i have read this article , this article has give me rthe information of the nigeria that is very good,
tx
alakija seyi ezekiel
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Mar 28, 2008 @ 9:09 am
Thanks for the wonderful works and reserch you have done..more greese to your elbow...Please i want to know aboy Yoruba and Igbo Homestead layout....hope to recieve your mail as soon as possible..thnks .
God bless us and God bless Nigeria as a whole
ann
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Apr 2, 2008 @ 4:16 pm
intresting, i really will like to getn a copy. a job welldone
Gabriel
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Apr 13, 2008 @ 7:07 am
Very educative and unbiassed writing about Nigeria. Until now, I did not know how the name 'Nigeria' came about. Good job. Keep it up!
ogunfowoke
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Apr 24, 2008 @ 7:07 am
This is simply an elaborate profile of Nigeria. Objective analysis of the country is very good. I am really impressed.
Adekanmbi Emmanuel Olufemi
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May 4, 2008 @ 6:18 pm
I needed info for an assignment in school and i got it here.Its about social ills in Nigeria
Tiffany
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May 9, 2008 @ 11:11 am
tHIS RESOURCE PAGE IS A LOT OF HELP IT GAVE ME SOME GOOD INFORMATION ON nIGERIA so I JUST wANTeD TO SAY thankS!!!
PAT
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May 20, 2008 @ 8:20 pm
Nice site!!! This is a very informative and useful site. I was doing a history project on Nigeria and I found this. This is an amazing site!!! Thank you so much for making this !!!
Ashade
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May 22, 2008 @ 7:07 am
This site was very interesting, enlighten me more on the culture of the Nigeria as a whole. Thanks for the works done.
asha
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May 23, 2008 @ 10:10 am
It was very helpful for me since,am going to marry my finace'e in Nigeria and am beginning to explore what it would be to live in this country.
It is helpful and educative. keep it up!
toyin
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Jun 27, 2008 @ 7:07 am
I only wanted something about Nigerian culture and I ended up getting more than enough. this is wonderful. keep up the good works. thanks for promoting Nigeria worldwide.
stella
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Jul 21, 2008 @ 7:07 am
This will help me in the topic i will be giving in school.Thank you
OBAYA A. D.
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Jul 27, 2008 @ 1:13 pm
Thank you for this site. You've done well for creating a site with comprehensive information on Nigeria.Please, keep on updating it.
Okereke Nnenna Cyndelen
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Jul 28, 2008 @ 11:11 am
I have to thank the author or the person that compile this article, it is nice for every Nigerians to have one and read and know the origin and other things about this great country. I am suggesting if more emphasis will be led on how the relationships on the three major group concerning marriage, dressing and others.

thank you and may God continue to reward you in your good work.
Gianna
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Sep 26, 2008 @ 12:12 pm
I was looking up Niger and Nigerian people for a french project, and i found this article very useful. Also i got an excellent grade. Keep it up!
Fortune
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Sep 30, 2008 @ 11:11 am
This is a thorough information and educative one for that matter. Am really proud to be a Nigerian, Abia State in particular. Only that Corruption in our Leadership system don't want us to be proud of our history. thanks for the information on my Motherland, it really helped me in project.
Epher
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Nov 6, 2008 @ 10:10 am
This is so amazing. there are actually lots of things about Nigeria that one doesn't know.Thanks to this site. What I think should be done, there should be updates regularly. Kudos!!!
EMMANUEL
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Nov 14, 2008 @ 3:03 am
this is a very relevant write up for the peoples of nigria who does not kwow their origin and culture
matt
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Nov 18, 2008 @ 7:19 pm
thanks i needed this info about nigeria because i am doing a project on it thanks
agoro
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Jan 15, 2009 @ 2:02 am
what a good descrition and insight analysis, help me in my school presentaion
Afolabi Oladayo (Deewon)
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Jan 31, 2009 @ 10:10 am
What an enlightening site! keep up the good work. more power to your elbow.
Halima Shehu
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Feb 3, 2009 @ 8:08 am
This helped me out a lot on my research paper,a lot of interesting things that make me want to learn more thanks please kept it up.
Brittany
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Mar 19, 2009 @ 5:17 pm
very good page, one thing Christians are more dominate in the South and Muslims are more dominate in the North.
iva
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Mar 19, 2009 @ 10:22 pm
I am doing a paper on cultural diversity and I chose Nigeria because one, my husband is nigerian. And I found this article and I couldn't stop reading...very interesting and just sums up what my husband said. love it!
Abdul Waliu Adesola
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Apr 18, 2009 @ 6:06 am
Thank u the writer of this article, thanks to all the brain behind this site, more griss to ur elbow..... could you pls help me with this topic The Perception of lecturers and srtudent on student imoral dressing on Campus.thanks
abakar
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Apr 25, 2009 @ 6:18 pm
i love reading such kind of articles becaue am very proud to be a nigerian. pls do send as many as posible to my email mbukar20004real@yahoo.com
eyebello
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May 7, 2009 @ 5:05 am
its very interesting i really enjoyed it and it tells more of what we are. Do post more pls thanks.
isreal
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May 16, 2009 @ 5:17 pm
this article is really great and as a matter of fact very enlightening abt nigeria. Pls keep up the gud work.
Ify
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May 16, 2009 @ 9:21 pm
This was very helpful for my report. I learned a lot of information for my culture part of my Nigerian report.
nkasiovu okpora
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May 27, 2009 @ 7:19 pm
I am very much interested about my heratage. My father is Nigerian and my mother is a Pilina. I grow up in the philippines.
I never had a chance to ask my father about Nigeria because
he left as when I was six years old and when back to Nigeria.
I dont have any communacation with him. the last information I know about my father is He works in River State University as a Professor. His name is Clement K. okpora.
Now after tweenty years I came to know Nigeria after reading this page. Thanks
Nkasiovu Okpora.
From ABU DHABI UAE
Lifeline Hospital Abu Dhabi UAE.
eugene
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Jun 4, 2009 @ 12:00 am
Nice culture Nigeria have.
AM A NIGERIAN, BUT HAVE NEVER BEEN OPPORTUNED TO KNOW THIS EXTENT ABOUT MY CULTURE, AM REALLY HAPPY TO KNOW IN DETAILS ONCE AGAIN ALL WHAT NIGERIAN CULTURE IS ALL ABOUT AND HOW IMPORTANT IT IS.
khalilat
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Jul 1, 2009 @ 8:08 am
this is wonderful,infact if u have no idea of what Nigeria is at all by reading this u will know everything about it.easy to understand pls keep it up!!!!!
Sichokuphi
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Jul 10, 2009 @ 9:09 am
Lam currently dating a Nigerian guy and this has really highlighted me on everything i wanted to know about Nigerians and their culture! At least lam now aware of other things in their culture! Thanks once again!
raheel
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Jul 28, 2009 @ 1:01 am
thanks for information.i want to appriciate of your work and respest of your work
Toyin Adetunji
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Jul 30, 2009 @ 10:22 pm
Good to know that there is valid information about Nigeria and all the other countries in Africa. Its so amazing how much you learn even when you think you know alot about your country. But also keep in mind, some of the information is dated.I'm loving every bit of it though.
dd
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Aug 20, 2009 @ 6:18 pm
youcan learn alot from this site keep up the good work
Daniel Ishaya
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Aug 26, 2009 @ 4:16 pm
It's quite interesting. I love it because it expose me to know more and to teach the American about my great country.
hehehe
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Sep 28, 2009 @ 11:11 am
this article really helps to know more about nigeria!!!!!
Gabrielle
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Oct 7, 2009 @ 5:17 pm
i was doing a project about nigeria and i thought you mud think it's cool so holla! :)
aspen
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Oct 14, 2009 @ 11:11 am
i thought this page was very helpful. im doing a project on niger so thank you
Eke
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Oct 28, 2009 @ 3:15 pm
This site does wonderfully well in portraying the realities of the NIGERIAN experience. There are some inaccuracies but they are minor and to be expected. The majority of the article is truthful and that is important to any people. Our culture and society may not be perfect, but I appreciate it being portrayed honestly. Thank you so much.
Uche
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Nov 4, 2009 @ 8:20 pm
This is really good. Keep it up.It helped me in preparation for my presentation on Individual and Cultural differences.It is a good job.
david.balogun
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Nov 16, 2009 @ 3:15 pm
Reading this article really put smile on my face am proud to be nigrian.i never knew there was aticle like this about nigeria online until i was told to talk about my conutry and other west africa country in comparisim to united kingdom were i school.with what i have read from here i have alot to talk about in my presetation thanks. david.balogun. york saint john university,york united kingdom.
ll cool jj
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Nov 29, 2009 @ 9:09 am
very good information helped me a great deal. thank you very much.
ninette scott
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Dec 10, 2009 @ 2:14 pm
I have some questions Can a lagos africa man have more than one wife? He married one in indianapolis and she thinks he has some in africa. Not sure religion yet but hes been here a few months now going back to africa. He says hes a doctor but nees to take tests in u.s.a. indianapolis, indiana. He had a round trip ticket when he came so he knew he was going bacvk but says he is coming back in 3 weeks. His brother-inlaw died 2 months ago and he says they hold you for up to 8 months there do they and what are funeral and burial procedures? Thank You For answering. I will be awaiting. Ninette Scott
Yusuf Abiodun
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Dec 12, 2009 @ 1:13 pm
Its really a great interesting site that gives more insight on what Nigerians had gone through and also gives the hope of making a life out of those mess around the corner today. please we need more of these. Thank you
zachariah ali manjiche(Rija)
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Dec 15, 2009 @ 3:03 am
I was carrying-out a research on my project topic when i stumble on this site, it is educative,enlightened,an eye-opener for any wanting to know much about the history of nigeria, its people, their cultures, beliefs . I believe in your dream of projecting the image of nigeria for the world to know and have confidence in the system.Thanks and keep it up, GOD bless NIGERIA and YOU.
Olga Russkikh
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Dec 26, 2009 @ 10:10 am
Thank you for the interesting information! Great job! ;-)
Uzair Ahmad Najmi
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Jan 6, 2010 @ 3:03 am
I was writing a book on the culture of Nigeria.This web is prove well for me.Because it have all the solution which i desire , that i want to be done to publish for my book of my students.
Daniel
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Jan 10, 2010 @ 10:22 pm
Hi there, the information that you have here it is really interesting and I found it very useful, I´m doing right now a research paper about Nigeria and I would thank you a lot if you tell me who is the author of this page? or a source that have created this web site? I´ll be waiting for your response, thank you very much.
Mary
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Jan 18, 2010 @ 7:07 am
Thank you for this article. I found it as I was looking for information on Nigeria. I am about to conduct some interviews about family life. Particularly 'fathers'. Families have moved to England and as a mature student very interested in how they view Western family life compared to their own homeland. This article has given me a foundation and raised my confidence to do my tasks towards my dissertation.
Daniel Oluwafemi Odebiyi
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Jan 21, 2010 @ 6:18 pm
Honestly this is a very good one. It is quite enlightening, interesting and educative. Very Critical and concise.It should be recommended to Nigerians (those of us in the country inclusive)and I believe so many will realize how little they know about this our country - Nigeria.
Keep it up
Bored person
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Jan 25, 2010 @ 1:13 pm
This has been alot of help :) im in 7TH GRADE and have to write a 5 PAGE REPORT! in COMPUTER CLASS
anjelina
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Jan 25, 2010 @ 6:18 pm
i really liked this site!!! altough it olnly helped me with one thing and dint answer all of my questions i had on nigeria it is still a great page!! i still have questions on how the government contributes to the sicknesses such as yellow fever and it didnt really describe the people. well it did but not to the extent tht i would have liked. its a very great page and i hope you contiunue to have it on the internet for the next set of seventh graders tht have to do the IDU project. thanks again and great site!!! =)
Gbenga
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Jan 26, 2010 @ 9:21 pm
I am researching a topic that has to do with comparing cultures and I have been able to find all i am requiring on this website. I still visits this website sometimes when i'm less busy and trying to know more about other national cultures. You guys have done a great job putting all these information together. More grease to your elbow.
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Feb 7, 2010 @ 12:12 pm
Great Nigeria, I am happy I came accorss this while seaching for an information on Nigeria culture and their health implications. I never know we have such an interesing cultures. Up Nigeria am proud to be a Nigerian. Great site Keep it up. Nigeria will survive. God Bless NIGERIA.
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Feb 9, 2010 @ 2:02 am
good and excellent thanks. This has been quite an enlightening and interesting read.
Critical and concise. Good work!!!
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Feb 9, 2010 @ 7:19 pm
I HOPE SOMEDAY I COULD GO TO NIGERIA TO EXPERIENCE THERE CULTURE. TANK YOU!
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Feb 18, 2010 @ 6:06 am
I was looking for social life-style of different people on the basis of personal interest when the search led me to this site. I am really amazed with what I found here. Thank you so much and keep it up.
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Feb 18, 2010 @ 3:15 pm
This is one of the best articles by far that I have ever read.
It explains a lot and it also answers any questions that you may have while reading.
I enjoy this informational website! THANK YOU ! and keep it up~
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Feb 28, 2010 @ 4:16 pm
Thanks for your wonderful work and for given us some tips about Nigeria. Actually , I am looking for 'what is the culture of Nigeria and what is metamorphic theory wen i discovered this Nigeria Nigeria. Bye for now.
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Mar 5, 2010 @ 6:18 pm
Very good narrative. I wanted to re-familairse myself with some of the cultural norms that I had forgotten. The site has some useful informaton about the origins of the name 'Nigeria', its people, and cultural dispositions. You have clearly researched your topic area. Thanks
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Mar 10, 2010 @ 6:06 am
While researching using the internet,in preparation for my Nigerian peoples and culture examination when I came across this fantastic article. honestly so many things I didn't know about my country was made to lie bare before my very eyes when I saw this article. kudos to you and please educate we Nigerians more about ourselves.
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Mar 19, 2010 @ 8:08 am
THIS IS A VERY RICH CONTENT,TRUE STORY ABOUT OUR GREAT NATION.FOR NIGERIA HISTORY ,THIS IS THE SITE TO VISIT.GREAT JOB KEEP IT UP
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Mar 25, 2010 @ 6:18 pm
I truly enjoyed reading this information about Nigeria's History, it is so highly informative, very highly educational. I've learned so much about the History of Nigeria and I'm glad that I had the opportunity to read this. I will definitely be able to forward this information to anyone who wants to know more about Nigeria. I truly enjoy reading this... Thank you so much for such a strong surface-base information about this country and how it has became to be known... Keep up the good work for it is Phenomenal!!! Absolutely OUTSTANDING Information!!!
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Mar 29, 2010 @ 11:11 am
I was looking for the Nigeria Culture, i was going to write a paper to compare and contrast or the similarities and the disimilarities of Nigeria and the American Culture and i got so much more. Thank You.
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Apr 7, 2010 @ 10:22 pm
Well i really enjoyed thie website..it helped me alot to understand there culture and how they grew up! Im writing a paper on Nigeria and i realy did enjoy what i read i would like to say thank you forgiving out so much information that influenced me to look@Nigeria so differnt!!God Bless NIGERIA
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Apr 29, 2010 @ 4:16 pm
I was checking the internet while researching information on diversity for masters program when I came across this article. So much information in one place. I found it to be full of everything that I needed. Thank you for sharing about the culture of Nigeria. I couldnt take my eyes off of the article. It was very detailed.
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May 1, 2010 @ 7:07 am
THE NIGERIAN SOCIETY,CULTURE. ETC IS SO INTERESTING.
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May 3, 2010 @ 2:14 pm
Am very delightful to got the opportunity to gain many things that i did not know before.this article provide many things i lack.totally is a full of knowledge for all levels.indeed is a full of enlightenment about our FATHER-LAND.Please we need more details of each ethnic groups.
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May 4, 2010 @ 12:00 am
this has been quite an educative read judging the fact majority of people nowadays pay less attention to details about their country. great job from every perspective and this has improved my knowledge about my country...thank you
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May 20, 2010 @ 2:14 pm
THIS IS A VERY WONDERFUL SITE, I CHERISH IT; I LOVE NIGERIA, SHE EVER REMAINS MY DEAREST COUNTRY. GOD BLESS NIGERIA. GOD BLESS THE COMPOSER OF THIS VERY INFORMATIVE SITE. MANY THANKS!
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May 22, 2010 @ 8:20 pm
Thank you for this information about our great country Nigeria. In the struggle of trying to find a lasting solution to our social problems and economic advancement, we all must first accept and believe in the word "i am a Nigerian" seeing ourselves as one people one Nation indivisible under God, as our brothers keeper will address most of our problems and enable us to jointly move the country forward. Thank you, great peice of work.
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May 23, 2010 @ 2:14 pm
Please keep up the good work. You are really making we scholars to know more about our country.
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May 25, 2010 @ 1:13 pm
nice info for my project i got an a thanks to this info it was so good i am really happy bye this info
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May 27, 2010 @ 2:14 pm
Thanks for the information. I has lots of information to prepare my lesson plan on Nigerian Tribes and People.
isioma
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Jun 7, 2010 @ 5:17 pm
This nice and very educative i have really learnt a lot
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Jun 21, 2010 @ 12:12 pm
This is really nice and deep things about Nigeria, I need some information about Nigeria for my research this site really open me up to a lot information, thanks so much.
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Jun 22, 2010 @ 3:03 am
I was searching on Culture and I understand that Nigeria culture is an originated culture. And I Like this site for it educating and it is good for student and citizens who want to know the culture in their country
Nasywa
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Jun 25, 2010 @ 3:03 am
Greats, i like so much, I come from indonesia can we change information about yaour culture?
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Jul 23, 2010 @ 5:05 am
I am very happy about this article. I was looking for an article about my course Nigeria people and culture and I saw was very interesting please keep it up.
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Aug 23, 2010 @ 11:11 am
Very interesting article. My heart bleeds for the people. I pray God over sees the needs of the people. God helps those who help them selves. Keep the faith and God will help.
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Sep 4, 2010 @ 10:22 pm
it great to have culture,it superb to be culture oriented,and the best of it is the proper practice of our culture.long live "Nigeria".
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Sep 27, 2010 @ 6:18 pm
I was writing a term paper i found this write-up on liberal studies, focusing on nigeria political and social development as an undergraduate student at Ryerson University in Canada. It really assisted me a lot

thx
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Oct 15, 2010 @ 8:08 am
NIGERIA IS A COUNTRY OF GREAT MEN AND WOMEN, IT IS WHEN WE START THINKING WHAT WE CAN DO FOR THE COUNTRY AND NOT THE COUNTRY CAN FOR US, THAT IT WILL PROGRESS.
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Oct 18, 2010 @ 3:15 pm
i pledge to nigeria my country...i appreciate this i really love reading history
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Oct 20, 2010 @ 7:07 am
I will like Nigeria as a whole to improve in their political participation, avoidance in corruption, Eradication of poverty, creation of jobs opportunities, educational stability, reduction in tribalism problems and good governance to the betterment of the country.
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Oct 23, 2010 @ 10:10 am
This piece is an eye opener to what our great country is. i was actually searching for the ethnic composition of nigeria and how they communicate. i couldnt have missed this for something else. great job and well done
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Oct 30, 2010 @ 11:11 am
this great story has opened my eyes to more understanding of my great position here as a Nigerian citizen thank you mysterious person.
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Nov 2, 2010 @ 2:14 pm
It was quite informative. Primary and secondary education were not mentioned. All the same, keep up the good work.
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Nov 4, 2010 @ 1:13 pm
The Origin of Tiv and How they got to where they are today in Nigeria
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Nov 13, 2010 @ 2:02 am
Thanks alot about the greatful history of Nigeria which is realization life in Nigeria,so surely we are developing and also more achievement will arrevial.great 4 site
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Nov 30, 2010 @ 6:06 am
THIS IS NICE, A WEB ABOUT NIGERIA OUR GREAT NATION.THIS WEB GAVE ME SOME VITAL IMFORMATION THAT I NEED TO KNOW AS A NIGERIAN.KUDOS.
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Dec 23, 2010 @ 1:13 pm
this article was fantastic for my research i needed to do. It gave me tons of info. that none of the other websites did. I was researching the part of their culture of religion, so I came to this site. Thanks for providing this site
PS. when was this site updated, I wonder?
Ajieye Seye
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Dec 28, 2010 @ 8:08 am
I like cultural things that why i what to know more about culture in Nigeria
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Dec 31, 2010 @ 2:02 am
Very clear and concise, perhaps a bit brief, but to-the-point and still interesting. Obviously not everything can be contained, however, I was hoping to gleen further insight into Nigeria's overwhelming and unmistakable culture of corruption. Nonetheless, thank you!
Marilyn
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Jan 1, 2011 @ 10:22 pm
This article helped me to learn more about my parents home country. It was very informative and a great read. I will have to come back to read this article over and over again. Thank you!
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Jan 5, 2011 @ 3:03 am
Quite educative,informative and inspiring. Never let's us down, make it more enriched in the course of time. keep the spirit in motion,even higher !
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Jan 8, 2011 @ 1:13 pm
keep this rare development alive, it is an unpopular gesture, but highly needed for its knowledge base, we will be glad to make contributions in future.
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Jan 9, 2011 @ 8:08 am
I was preparing a term paper on Nigerian people and culture and found this article educative, interesting and enlightening, as it allows me to appreciate my culture and people.THANK GOD I AM A NIGERIAN. deo gratias
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Jan 10, 2011 @ 7:19 pm
I am an American, who is deeply in love with a Nigerian man (Igbo). I have been married before (widowed) and I have adult children and grand children. Therefore, I am "single". Would it be uncustomary for this Nigerian man to marry a woman who is a foreigner, under such circumstances, or would it depend on the individual?

Thank you.
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Jan 21, 2011 @ 5:05 am
Wow! Wonderful piece of information. Will certainly help me to blend with the culture as i plan to shift to nigeria soon for work.

Dilip.
NIMDUL NANCHANG
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Jan 21, 2011 @ 4:16 pm
well done. please more of agriculture should be available on this site. it is our heritage.
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Jan 25, 2011 @ 7:07 am
Wow Thank You For All This Wonderful Information ")
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Jan 27, 2011 @ 4:04 am
Wow, This is fantastic,you make my work easiear and interesting.Good job,and God Bless
Gbenga
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Jan 30, 2011 @ 8:20 pm
There is nothing bad in a foreigner getting married to a Nigerian,infact it will strengthen the more good relationships between the two countries
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Feb 1, 2011 @ 5:05 am
English language alongside the western education came as a visitor to Nigeria and it dose not provide any meaningful benefit to Nigeria society, and that of African. pleas i will like u to help me to discuses more about that more enlighten.
OLALEYE OLANIKE
From Nigeria
COLLEGE OF EDUCATION,OTO IJANIKIN Lagos
Oyinda Daramola
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Feb 1, 2011 @ 7:07 am
Good write-up overall but I could have sworn there is no caste system in Yorubaland, and definitely nothing like the Osu among the Igbos. Please suggest further reading to justify this article's claim of a caste system among the Yoruba, who have always beem much more of a class-based society. However, not being royal, nobleman or wealthy does not make you a pariah in Yorubaland. Certainly, the poor are disadvantaged and underprivileged as they are anywhere else in the world but the Yoruba do not consider or treat the poor as outcasts or untouchables! Who are the Osu of Yorubaland? The caste system is morally indefensible. It defies all logic and I am yet to meet one person who defends it and is able to justify it. So, I ask again, who are the outcast groups among my people, the Yoruba? I really would appreciate fact-based evidence to enlighten me further. Thanks, in advance, to everyone who can.
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Feb 5, 2011 @ 10:10 am
I have a friend from nigeria and i have seen their clothing and they are wonderful now i have culture project and mine will be based on nigeria.
ADESANYA OLUWAFEMI
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Feb 19, 2011 @ 11:11 am
FOUND THIS ARTICLE VERY USEFUL IN PREPARATION FOR MY EXAMINATION
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Feb 20, 2011 @ 12:00 am
dis is highly educative. will like to know more of architectural practice
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Feb 21, 2011 @ 3:15 pm
This is great. Keep it up. Many Nigerians will definitely find it useful. More grease to your elbow. Nice job.
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Feb 24, 2011 @ 8:08 am
this is a great site for children to use for projects !
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Feb 25, 2011 @ 2:14 pm
what and how was nigeria 100 years ago.thats what i want to find out
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Mar 1, 2011 @ 1:01 am
I am working on my literary interpretation and I am happy i found this site. This will be of help to me because i chose Nigeria to be my subject. I hope to find also about their short stories.Thank you and God bless.
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Mar 2, 2011 @ 7:07 am
I'm so greatful for this web. Because they said allot about my country.
IJ
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Mar 4, 2011 @ 4:04 am
This page is truly way beyond what i asked for. The person(S) behind this great piece of work deserves to be celebrated and honored.
What can i say, am already holding a party for them. KEEP UP IT GOOD WORK!
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Mar 4, 2011 @ 8:08 am
very educative.useful information especially for a future yoruba son in-law like me
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Mar 4, 2011 @ 9:09 am
I like it,just because is more educative to the fact that people without knowledge this hostry give kudos to this site.
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Mar 4, 2011 @ 10:10 am
I think that comment that u said really made my weiner hard...and i thank u for that
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Mar 4, 2011 @ 12:12 pm
i want to know d diff types of culture that is been practice in our society or country Nigeria.their believe,custom,value,norm etc and way of life of those culture
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Mar 5, 2011 @ 2:02 am
I have read the site and it is the best place to get nigeria history.
Iweala
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Mar 6, 2011 @ 8:20 pm
very informative
helped with reaseach topic; nigerian religion
i'll be sure to return anytime i'm in need of information
Iweala
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Mar 6, 2011 @ 8:20 pm
very informative
helped with reaseach topic; nigerian religion
i'll be sure to return anytime i'm in need of information
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Mar 8, 2011 @ 4:04 am
what i really want to say here is that am very glad to see we Nigerians coming out to paste our ethnic knowledge for those who do not really know there culture Nigeria came into existence. I say keep it up and may the Lord continually to Direct you and Strengthen you in your work which you have started.
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Mar 8, 2011 @ 6:06 am
I had a college assignment, Introducing Culture and Diversity (of two countries) to Pre-Schoolers in the form of a Disply. While reseaching, I came across this site and I must say that I found it to be very informative. The details are enlightening and the language is indeed simple enough for children.

It is a great resourse. Citizens and foreigners alike would become acquinted with 'Nigeria'by reading through this article. It is well researched and presented, WELL DONE!

I would suggest that more pictures be added to the article as they help the reader to understand what has been written, especially those who have not been to Nigeria. For example: 'Women carrying their young ones on their backs', The Nigerian Flag, The map of Nigeria in colour to help differenciate the states ans so on.
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Mar 8, 2011 @ 7:19 pm
I am quite impressed that this kind of information is available on the web about Nigeria. Pls creator keep it up.
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Mar 10, 2011 @ 8:08 am
This is a great Nigeria history.But you have to write or enlightened the people on the history of Nigeria with the different ethnicity and the different tribe we have. Also the culture and tradition of each states in Nigeria.
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Mar 11, 2011 @ 5:05 am
I enjoyed the page and i want to know more about Nigeria.
Ojelade bukola ademola
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Mar 27, 2011 @ 2:02 am
A wonderful write up,keep it up,put in an improved effort in subsequent work,the sky is your basement.kudos to you
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Mar 27, 2011 @ 6:18 pm
am realy impress with this detailed information about my darling country
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Mar 29, 2011 @ 6:18 pm
THIS SITE IS ONE OF THE BEST SITE WITH DIRECT INFORMATION AND THE CONTENT OF THIS SITE IS OF THE HIGHEST CLASS. THANK YOU FOR THE TECHNOLOGY SO FAR KEEP IT UP FOR YOUR HUMANITARIAN SERVICES.
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Mar 30, 2011 @ 6:06 am
Thanks for your wonderful write up...don't know if you are a Nigerian and what part you came from. But l like to say thanks for your bralient ideas and compilation and will encourage more of your writings as l hope all critisizing and comments will be put into consideration for a better output of your work.

All you wrote was a fact as am also a Nigerian Living outside.l had tried to get on some write up regarding Nigeria culture, religion and behavior, thoe am an IT student but working on something that will impact Nigerians.

l just have a few comments to make as l will love if you make more investingation and research on this 2 topics.

1. The HIV/AID in Nigeria, as l dont like that word..widely spreed in Nigeria, becoause like you also agreed that Nigeria is the most populous nation yet more smallar country in Africa and the world has far heigher HIV/AID than you can immagine in Nigeria, yet these countries dont say they have wide spreed HIV/AID. So, to me its better you use if not check it will grow wide, or don't even use as it not neccessary in the contest of that writing.

2. That the muslim is more than the christians in that great maggine you used. As most of this words and statistics result from political statement where the north also claimed the population of kaduna/kano and even the entire North is muslim. l check other idears online and few books on same topic about the population and magine on both religion,it seems yours is over weighing on the 50/40. If you are Nigerian you will understand what am saying but l believe you also use same statistics that was online. Make your own research you will know that gone are those days when the muslim use to be more in number.
Linda
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Mar 30, 2011 @ 7:07 am
I am reading the Purple Hibiscus by Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie so I was looking for more information about Nigeria. This website has helped give me a broader context for her story and the conflicts between Christianity and traditional culture. Thank you!!
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Apr 6, 2011 @ 3:03 am
Its this culture exercise by nigeria and public administration?
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Apr 7, 2011 @ 3:03 am
Commendable.. A very good work from you guys, couldn't ask for something better..
Thanks
sany
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Apr 7, 2011 @ 10:10 am
indeed a very informative narrative.since i am a student i found this narrative very informative this helped me in writing my assignment about the country. keep up the good work.
idk
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Apr 11, 2011 @ 8:20 pm
thank you for all the info it was so great for my project
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Apr 13, 2011 @ 6:06 am
MUCH DEFINITION ON CULTURE AND IT DIVERSION DIFFERENT FORMS AND IT TYPE IN NIGERIA CONTEMPORARY SOCIETY
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Apr 23, 2011 @ 3:15 pm
Hi,
I was employed to a Nigerian family as a Nanny my service was terminated because i told them i saw a ghost in there house. can some please shed some light on there Christian/spirtual believes. i was told to seek help from there pastor which i refuse because its nothing to me, still can't believe i lost my job because i told them that i saw a ghost.

thanks
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Apr 26, 2011 @ 5:05 am
Can we study nigeria culture to the end,and what is the implication of culture on nigeria economy.
dee
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May 2, 2011 @ 10:22 pm
i love this website. im 16 years old and i live in chicago and this website help me alot ! im a PROUD nigerian but currentli lack knowledge in the culture ways etc so greatful ue made this page
cheers :) xx
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May 15, 2011 @ 3:15 pm
Nigeria is a great country; our father land, a home in the heart of Africa. av got a piece on the niger state, its a poetic profile " speechless lines"
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May 19, 2011 @ 8:08 am
gud jobs to d contributors, am realy impressed bcos its educative about my beloved country
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May 26, 2011 @ 2:14 pm
nigeria is the most beautifull country in the world
Ifiok Akpan
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May 30, 2011 @ 12:00 am
I found the article very educating and informative. You said it all about Nigeria using this piece. How i wish other nationalities that need to know about Nigeria will be able to access these piece of information.Finally, I commend your literary effort.
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Jun 4, 2011 @ 10:10 am
i so much lyk de information in dis rum. It fully explained much about de origination of NIGERIA and hw they united as one family
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Jun 5, 2011 @ 12:12 pm
This is an exciting write up that deserve commendation from every angle of reading, pls keep it up as I pray that God will richly bless u for impacting in our lives. Thanks greatly
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Jun 9, 2011 @ 5:05 am
I love this site, Nigerians keep on. I have a little problem on theis question which is, what is the significant of men in the development of Nigeria as a nation?
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Jun 16, 2011 @ 8:08 am
I am amazed that an article of this nature exists. I would have thought that something like this would reside in the hallowed annals of the Nigerian Congressional Library (if one actually exists). Thanks to the internet, there now exists a pool of authentic, well researched, well articulated presentation about my beloved country, Nigeria. While one may not always be very proud of all that Nigeria represents, this article surely portrays Nigeria as an organized modern society of humans fit and worthy to be taken seriously in a global world.

Thank you for your work. I am very impressed, and quite proud to be a Nigerian.
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Jun 24, 2011 @ 11:11 am
I found this website in the process of writing my term paper research given to me by by lecture.it my pleasure using this website.keep it up.it not easy.thanks a lot
Sadiq Adamu Haruna
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Jun 27, 2011 @ 8:08 am
Awesome, i love the history & culture publication i I've found here, is good to know, it's so real and its great!!!
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Jul 14, 2011 @ 1:13 pm
This is so cool.
I'm doing a research for this country.
That is so cool!
Anne
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Jul 14, 2011 @ 7:19 pm
It quite interesting to note that among the ethnic group in Nigeria, Efik was not included. Are Efik not an ethnic group in Nigeria?
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Jul 15, 2011 @ 8:08 am
this info about nigeria is great keep it up but i still need 2 know about ethnics groups in each states of nigeria
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Jul 16, 2011 @ 8:20 pm
I'm a student of history and i have red some books and articles on Nigerian History.This article is one the best articles on Nigerian History.It is comprehensive and educative.
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Jul 18, 2011 @ 2:02 am
I will like to join you and be reading your journals which will assist to facilitate my learning
Mwende
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Jul 31, 2011 @ 2:02 am
This is very educative...keep it up.

Also, I would like to receive the same on my email listed. Please keep sending me updates on the Nigerian Culture...
MUCIM 145
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Aug 1, 2011 @ 4:04 am
i really love it so much, i am here living in the Philippines and seeing that "documentary" as i called it make me realize how much i love my country so much. thanks a lot to those who contributed in making this. I LOVE NIGERIA SO MUCH...
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Aug 17, 2011 @ 6:06 am
We are bless and we are the greatest nation in the whole Africa. Nigeria continuous unity
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Aug 19, 2011 @ 10:22 pm
Good job on this info! I can say that u said it as it is. If u want to know Nigeria, this is it. It is what it is. Again, very informative for all! thanks!
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Sep 1, 2011 @ 11:23 pm
Can anyone tell me about the Interpretation of time, and Body language of nigeria.
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Sep 21, 2011 @ 7:07 am
my question "the legal problems inhibiting the survival of the organisation in Nigeria?
Adeola Ojo
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Sep 23, 2011 @ 9:09 am
Good job on this informations, thanks so much. I was able to find enough info for a school project but l found some spelling errors on some names, for example, Ibadan was spelled as Ibidan and Sani Abacha was spelled as Sini Abacha. If this could be corrected please. Will sure visit this site again for more info. Thanks!
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Sep 28, 2011 @ 4:04 am
Good information.
I would like to use some of your write up here and images ( with acknowledgement ) in our forth coming open exhibition to mark Nigeria' s 51 independence here in Abuja.
The theme of the exhibition is Nigeria one united people and it's essence is to promote unity among the diverse Nigerian culture.

I will be glad if this request is granted.
You can mail for response at toludave@gmail.com

Thanks and regards.
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Sep 29, 2011 @ 3:03 am
what a wonderful site, God will really bless u for this information in here. its really help. shalom to your soul.
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Sep 29, 2011 @ 6:06 am
well thanks for google for the works they have been doing for student especially me in particular
i said am greatful,great uniben
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Sep 30, 2011 @ 3:03 am
Is our culture and tradition as outlined in this article in line with our traditions as well as religious institutions? If YES, are they practicable? If NO, what can/are do/doing to help the situation especially in the face of instability.
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Oct 5, 2011 @ 2:14 pm
It's nice to meet this kind of articles in the net, how I wish it was before the Nija @ 51, i could have use it to compose some articles, while never thelesss it may still be ok for us.
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Oct 6, 2011 @ 9:09 am
I am very appreciated this information and it is great site for the future research about our great country and good peoples.
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Oct 13, 2011 @ 11:11 am
Sir, this site is a rich one to those who study and write about dear country and its rich culture. keep it up.
please help he in my research question
what are the past and present family and social life style and what cause those changes in Nigeria?
Kristy
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Oct 14, 2011 @ 10:10 am
It was a really enlightening piece.Though id love more writeups about other ethnic groups other than yoruba,igbo and hausa.Thanks
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Oct 15, 2011 @ 11:11 am
I have seen their culture; i.e. their total way of life! It is good! but so varied!
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Oct 23, 2011 @ 10:22 pm
Needs something on the tools of Nigeria. As I looked, I found no thing on tools...
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Oct 26, 2011 @ 5:05 am
Thank you so much for your imformations. Now I learned a lot from your culture I studies them because its my researh and I love your culture vey much. God Bless you more.
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Oct 31, 2011 @ 6:06 am
i am looking for an answer to this question that says... In the face of globalization, what choice does nigeria have?
Chika
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Nov 4, 2011 @ 12:00 am
This is great! Though obviously does not represent certain aspects of Nigerian life, predicament and situation, nevertheless iy serves as an introduction for anyone who desires to do further reading about this people who represent the best of Africa. Nigeria is indeed a blessed land.
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Nov 6, 2011 @ 2:02 am
I STUMBLED INTO THIS PUBLICATION ON MY SEARCH FOR NIGERIAN CULTURE,AND BEHOLD I GOT MORE THAN WHAT I WAS SEARCHING FOR,MUCH MORE HAS BEEN ADDED TO MY KNOWLEDGE ,MAY GOD CONTINUE TO ENCOURAGE AND BLESS YOU SO MUCH.
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Nov 7, 2011 @ 7:07 am
Nice write up. Your analytical originality and objectivity place your work at the realm of pantheons. However, the figures regarding the populations of muslims / christians and also three largest tribes are unfounded and are rather from political sources(i guess). All the same kudos for your sound analysis of nigeria.
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Nov 7, 2011 @ 8:08 am
This is a great write,it has really given me some ideas about how far Nigeria as a country has been.Please can I be assisted in getting information about the influx of churches into villages in Nigeria.Thanks
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Nov 10, 2011 @ 9:09 am
this is awesome i am a nigerian i learnt more about my great country
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Nov 11, 2011 @ 8:20 pm
WRITING STORY ABOUT IGBO CULTURE...NEED INFORMATION ABOUT, CUSTOMS, CLOTHING, FOOD, LIVING CONDITIONS 1933-38
IF THERE ARE PICTURES AND WHATEVER INFORMATION YOU CAN LEND WOULD BE GREATLY APPRECIATED..THANKS
Chike
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Nov 13, 2011 @ 10:10 am
A good write up we have here, I must say. To the author, well done. Keep it up
Chioma
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Nov 14, 2011 @ 11:11 am
As a Nigerian born in another country, this has really helped me to fully understand my country's culture. It is a great article and I will have to use it as a refernce for my class research paper.
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Nov 14, 2011 @ 7:19 pm
Very good and educational this site helped me with my research paper!! thanks so much
Godfrey Adinson
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Nov 16, 2011 @ 3:03 am
What a wonderful... very educative, interesting to read, am most sure that even non-Nigerians would love this article. may God continue to bless you & your work for it really help me a lot on my research work.
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Nov 17, 2011 @ 8:08 am
this has helped me very much. i only need help on what they wear. Any help?
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Nov 21, 2011 @ 7:07 am
My auntie B is an Princess of Nigeria and i have an project due on the 23 of November and this help me with alot of things i needed to know.
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Nov 23, 2011 @ 6:06 am
i love your site by 100%, keep on educating the world, it a lovely site.
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Nov 23, 2011 @ 8:08 am
THANKS FOR THIS .. PLS HOW DOES NIGERIA RELATE OR INTERACT WITH OTHER NATIONS CULTURALLY..
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Nov 23, 2011 @ 1:13 pm
thanks for the comprehensive information about my country. keep up with the good work.
victoria nwaogwugwu
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Dec 1, 2011 @ 2:02 am
analyse any three aspect of nigerian culture using the principle of cultural relativism
Ome Edwin
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Dec 7, 2011 @ 6:06 am
THANKS FOR MAKING ME TO UNDERSTAND AMONG THE FOUR CARDINAL POINT OF WHICH NIGERIA IS AT THE WESTERN PART OF THE COAST AND THANKS BE TO GOOGLE S ACHING ENGINE
dogu erdogan
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Dec 15, 2011 @ 12:12 pm
i offer my full of thanks for this great job. This article make me adapted at my life in Nigeria. Thanks to everyone who contributed to.
pumpkin
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Dec 30, 2011 @ 11:11 am
couldnt you be more specfic? hello! us dumb children cannot understand! plus where is the traditions? hello!missing information
alyssa
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Jan 5, 2012 @ 2:14 pm
i loved the article and i would love to read more:) the only thing i need to find out now is what a day in their life would be like...
May
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Jan 12, 2012 @ 8:08 am
Good article and full of information but being myself a Nigerian, born and bred, I have to say that there are a few facts that are incorrect. For instance, the Igbo will not send a dead person's corpse to their mother's kin for burial. This ONLY happens where there is a great dispute about paternity or any such serious matter. In many Igbo villages men are in fact buried in the sitting room of their main family home. Secondly, the average Nigerian woman and child expects the father of the home to provide all their needs. Many men even refuse to allow their wives seek employment on this score. The pride of the men is a well looked-after family and I found it really confusing to read about a culture where the women do this themselves having grown up in Nigeria myself.
Donna Obaseki-Ogunnaike
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Jan 17, 2012 @ 4:04 am
Very informative and accurate (as far as memory serves me). Well done.
Bilikisu
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Jan 28, 2012 @ 8:20 pm
What a good work and a way to pass a great message. But should have find a way to include some recent photographs that will have shown real state of Nigeria now.
Pius mezino
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Jan 29, 2012 @ 3:15 pm
This is acctually what we the students of nigeria realy need for us to know our exact stand in our great multy ethnic cultural society. Thanks for keeping we the literate at heart.
balarabe adamu
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Feb 2, 2012 @ 1:01 am
list and explain ten ways we can help to make nigeria more united
tamara
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Feb 4, 2012 @ 1:13 pm
i love my country because it's getting better now than before , can someone please call all the Nigerian boys and girls back home.because motherland is good, good for everybody
Debby
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Feb 20, 2012 @ 10:10 am
Many thanks for this beautiful article. My daughter had an homework to research about an African country, she chooses Nigeria since that is our country although we are British citizens. I could not stop myself reading this article all over again to stay in touch with my Country and it really got me Homesick that I long to make journey down there to see my people again. I miss home so much. God bless Nigeria and God bless you that wrote and publish this article. I pray that the Peace of God overwhelm our Nation and God himself instill His fear in the hearts of our leaders in Jesus name. Amen.
Taiwo Idris
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Feb 29, 2012 @ 5:05 am
We need the complete break down of d 10 major religions.
Googmoment
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Mar 7, 2012 @ 7:07 am
Well ,it's a joyful-moment to have the opportunity to read ,get infomation about Nigeria's norms ,culture , politically and the way of survival or how their things done fortunately. I am glad and thanx Nigerians for publishing information .In addition is also a good reminder to those living overseas. Keep up the good work.
pandora lipstick
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Mar 11, 2012 @ 2:14 pm
I'm married with a Nigerian man from Eshan Tribe and wanted to know more about this tribe; in my search I came up on this side; very intresting and educative, is it possible to do a research on
the Eshan people customs and culture. Keep up the good work
Christian Anakor
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Mar 12, 2012 @ 10:10 am
Wonderful article,articulate, precise,and information filled.I was writing my semester paper at Jackson State University on the Health Care System in Nigeria when I navigated to this website.More of this will definitely help posterity get information about our culture,way of life and the place of politics in our health care system which more or less will be described as very poor because of monumental corruption in the system.Just keep it up.
Jessica
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Mar 16, 2012 @ 10:10 am
This was extremely helpful for my project at school, Thanks! :)
HABIBA AHMED
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Mar 18, 2012 @ 2:14 pm
I was giving assignment from my school to write about trends affecting Nigeria religion today, I find this article very helpful. It tells me more about my Country. i end up knowing more about Nigeria. He bookmarks the link. Thanks for the article.
amarachi
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Apr 12, 2012 @ 1:13 pm
i love my country and i believe that it will be a better country soon, and the education will also improve because Nigeria is growing day by day.
josefina
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Apr 13, 2012 @ 4:16 pm
Thank you for the information giving,it help me to know more about my husband country.
Odejimi Olalekan Haruna
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Apr 17, 2012 @ 9:09 am
am cool with all the facts gathered in this write up because it goes a long way in helping me with my assignment on 'Nigerian Culture and its effect on the economy'
Thanks.
Gbubies
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Apr 17, 2012 @ 10:10 am
This write-up was really helpful for my assgmnt. Thnx a lot keep up the job abt stories Nigerians need to knw
SULAIMAN OLOKO ABBDUL
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Apr 26, 2012 @ 2:02 am
I sincerely appreciate this work that has enriched my knowledge about my country. i strongly commend the author for this good job
romesha
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Apr 30, 2012 @ 8:08 am
wow! yoou guys really helped me do a good job on my project thanks a lot.
Jaewon
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May 5, 2012 @ 9:09 am
Thanks a lot ! This helped me to prepare for my presentation !
akudo
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May 11, 2012 @ 9:09 am
this site is so amazing which i could learn more.kudos
Awwal I. Dansadau
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May 14, 2012 @ 1:13 pm
This is a real commendable effort in exposing the rich cultures of a country believed to encampases tremendous natural potentials, intelligent, hardworking and enterprising people. This site has said alot on thi most populous, virile, viable, enviable and economically reliable black nation of Africa: Nigeria. I am proud to be Nigerian.
Abosede
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May 15, 2012 @ 8:20 pm
I was truly impressed with the writer's knowledge about Nigeria but disagree on the point that men dont provide for their wives and children. I was born and raised in nigeria and my mother never worked for a day because it was the duty of my father to provide for the family. Nigerian Men take pride in providing for their families because that proves that they are real men. in all good information.
JanayJanay
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May 28, 2012 @ 10:22 pm
Very informative, I will be using this information to educate my former classmates, & for my research report. Thank you!
emmy
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May 31, 2012 @ 5:05 am
thanks for the write up ,it has helped me in gathering information for my article, Emmy from Russia
Blessed
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Jun 12, 2012 @ 3:03 am
This is so beautiful.I love the country and I hope one day I will live there with my mother-in-law.I love you Nigeria and your beautiful people.
Vincent
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Jun 13, 2012 @ 2:14 pm
I am very heart-broken at the state of Nigeria's social and economic systems. It is sad to know that despite the tons of resources, both human and natural, the nation still has millions of people languishing in poverty. There has been no specific road-map to make institutions in Nigeria work to better the lot of everyone. I felt like crying, while going through the write-up because, even commentators do not see the piece beyond knowledge sake. Personal knowledge of Nigeria's culture and educational usage have been reiterated from the respondents. I am deeply saddened by this obvious fact which does not appear so obvious to the respondents. However, the situation with ethnicity and the ruling elite may linger, but, a change of constittion that will strip public office holders of the control over resources and the nation's wealth, will send a string message of change and indeed foster development by allowing more power to the masses through more control of resources handed down to the people. Change will come. The masses will become more empowered and the public offices will become less attractive. That way, we'd be able to foster and build a Nigeria of our dreams, with everyone having the opportunity to develop and access to chioces, hitherto available to corrupt politicians and businessmen
samson abdullahi
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Jun 22, 2012 @ 4:04 am
i love nigeria my country despite the security challenges
Amara
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Jul 5, 2012 @ 4:04 am
Thanks! The article is very useful,it made me know my country more,and it helped me out in my GST course:Nigerians peoples and culture.please update more info
GLORIENEIL
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Jul 6, 2012 @ 2:02 am
It's good to note the NIGERIA showed all kinds of meaningful information which are very useful to all people especially for a Ph.D. student like me here in University of the Philippines.We are required to search and to find out different countries based on the above information..and from them i can say there are many good practices in NIGERIA that can be adopted by other countries in order to make difference. I really enjoyed reading these.
Ugochukwu Okezie
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Jul 16, 2012 @ 6:18 pm
Woaw. I like dis site, it reflesh my memory based on Nigeria predicament and why Nigeria is a failure state. Atleast i can give an account of somethings that happen those days
Arinze (zeal)
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Jul 28, 2012 @ 2:02 am
This site realy enlightened me the most about my country Nigeria. I must confess that am so happy. Keep it up.
Zainab Salisu
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Aug 5, 2012 @ 6:06 am
An excellent educative write up! U guys ar doing great, kip d flag going. Am proud 2 b a nigerian!
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Aug 11, 2012 @ 10:10 am
I found this information enlightening and I am always looking for information about Nigeria to incorporate in my research for documentaries. I would like to build a relationship with people interested in participating in two projects that I will be working on in 2013. Please visit my site email me if you are interested in providing an interview. To view a sample of my work please visit Frontline Television Limited. Thank you and I hope to hear from all parties interested.
PK
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Aug 31, 2012 @ 5:05 am
These web site has truly made me awre of some certain thing which i never thought of.
Akinfemiwa olatunde
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Sep 1, 2012 @ 1:13 pm
Good work,this is interesting what a nation to be!!!
kewonkew
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Sep 19, 2012 @ 9:09 am
Wow what a great read. Lot of information and makes great report for my research paper on Nigeria. Thanks!
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Oct 14, 2012 @ 12:00 am
very good Culture is a word that is familiar to everyone, but its precise meaning can be
elusive. A useful definition by noted social scientist Geert Hofstede is that culture
consists of shared mental programs that condition individuals’ responses to their
environment.
dhemmybabe
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Oct 16, 2012 @ 1:13 pm
pls can u tel me how history has helped in the unity of the people of Nigeria
Emmanuel james
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Oct 25, 2012 @ 4:16 pm
Thanks alot for this great information about nigerian people and culture. Infact this is where my lecturers derived the Nigerian information and prepared a book for me to buy.
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Oct 27, 2012 @ 9:09 am
This was some really good info. My man friend is Nigerian and I wanted to know more about where he comes from
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Nov 9, 2012 @ 6:18 pm
theres one thing that they missed out which is the social groups that i need for my project but i got everything else
Joseph
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Nov 13, 2012 @ 10:22 pm
Very interesting indeed. I Love what I read, good people. Africa is a beautiful place to live and also visit. Long Live federal republic of Nigeria.
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Nov 15, 2012 @ 7:07 am
Thanks for posting this such a knowledgeful artical whict is describing so may aspects of Nigeria, there people, culture, lifestyle, religion & livelihood. I am an Indian and working in an IT company, few days back i have got an opportunity to work in Nigeria's city Lagos.
I am a lil bit scared about the violence part of Nigeria but on the other hand i want to expolre my self, this is the very first time while i'm traveling outside of my country (India).
Friends please share your views with me at ammyjais@gmail.com
if i would be there so what kind of problems i migh be face...?
Allamah Ali Mele
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Nov 24, 2012 @ 3:03 am
I have gone through the contents which made me happy to contact and show my appreciation upon it. I will be happy if you will continues sending me such contents to my email address. Thanks
MaryAnn Sunny Glover
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Nov 26, 2012 @ 2:14 pm
I was enlighten of what i read about Nigeria But i want to learn a lot more. I am planning on marrying a Nigerian man.
Eddie Wane
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Dec 2, 2012 @ 7:07 am
Very impressed with this document. Got what I wanted out of this and say thanks again
goodgirl
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Dec 10, 2012 @ 6:06 am
this article was really helpful to me and i am suprised by the amount of information i got from it.keep up the good work
minnie mouse
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Dec 21, 2012 @ 9:09 am
I would like to read more about the langue and the migration to wich it started the langue...but it was okay for the most part.
jamie
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Jan 13, 2013 @ 11:11 am
one of the best articles i have read about Nigeria.thanks i got the information i needed.
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Jan 20, 2013 @ 1:13 pm
i love your website it has every information i want about nigerians my project is going to be fab because of you guys you made it possible.
Adoroh John
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Jan 27, 2013 @ 6:06 am
Please, can you list out 20 of Nigerian culture outside the popular ones like; Hausa, Yoruba, etc?
victor otoghagua
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Feb 5, 2013 @ 7:19 pm
this website about Nigeria's people and culture is well resershed and analysed.
Ishola
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Feb 12, 2013 @ 7:07 am
Nice answer,more grease to your elbow,i am highly impressed by the information provided.
Ibrahim
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Feb 20, 2013 @ 6:06 am
Can I Please get the detailed story of Ijebu People and their praise (Euology). thank you
Babatunde Moyinoluwa. Elizabeth
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Feb 24, 2013 @ 3:03 am
This is a nice work. Thanks very much and please keep it up.
iyaijebu
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Feb 24, 2013 @ 9:09 am
I thoroughly enjoyed reading this article. Thank you and well done! There are few inaccuracies there but May; (Comment #229) addressed those issues. Nigerian men do take pride in taking care of their wife or wives and children. I know it has been several years since this was written; the ratio of Muslim to Christian has changed. Nonetheless, I commend you for your work and an unbiased comment. Nicely done! May God bless you. I shed a tear or two beaming with pride about my country Thank you very much.
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Feb 28, 2013 @ 9:09 am
what was the igbo laws when the " white man " invated? if anyone can find that email me please
Yohana Izam
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Mar 3, 2013 @ 4:16 pm
Well researched. But the Muslim/Christian ratio need to be rechecked please.
Opeyemi
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Mar 11, 2013 @ 6:06 am
I love dis is good 4 d project my writting on social development in nigeria have gain a lot there thanks keep it up it nice.
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Mar 12, 2013 @ 3:15 pm
Hummm, am sooo delighted to come across this page. I've been eager to know much about my own CULTURE in details. Though, am student of Benue state University MAKURDI. ''Nigeria people and culture is one of my GSTs'' which the text book cost 4500, so i've seen the text here without paying for it. So tnkz for ur good work. ''RAZ B''
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Mar 25, 2013 @ 10:10 am
Highly educative. it helps in my assignment. kudos!
Hana
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May 8, 2013 @ 9:09 am
Hello, i am a student at Lewis and Clark High School. I am doing an isearch on Ibo women of Nigeria. I would like to interview anyone who knows more information about that topic. Please email me at hanasandy14@gmail.com if your are intrested. Thank you so much.
Amy
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May 14, 2013 @ 7:19 pm
Wow! this is good, my children couldn't believe some of the information that we got from this website, i must confess that this is excellent and very educational for our young generation. Thumbs up to those that invest their time, money and intellectual in this. My country people no matter what, our culture is the best, i don't care about what people say. God Bless Nigeria!!!
Amber
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May 24, 2013 @ 9:21 pm
I am using this website for a report and I would like to know the date that this information was published on this website. Thank you.
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Jun 26, 2013 @ 6:06 am
I'm very greatful to this website becouse i found the solution of my problem at school(Assignment).
osah uche gift
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Aug 24, 2013 @ 2:02 am
let me start form thanking them because with the help of this website i have know so many things about Nigeria culture. But i want ask who is the founder of this website because i want to use it ask an assignment in my community. Thank you.
osah uche gift
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Aug 24, 2013 @ 2:02 am
let me start form thanking them because with the help of this website i have know so many things about Nigeria culture. But i want ask who is the founder of this website because i want to use it ask an assignment in my community. Thank you.
ELESHO SIMEON
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Oct 28, 2013 @ 11:11 am
This in no small no small measure has detailed me about my country. A rich well placed and divinely blessed with natural and human resources but battling with leadership problem. we are grateful for this helping information. Nigeria will rise no matter our difficulties.
Taye Fadipe
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Oct 30, 2013 @ 9:21 pm
When I tell my white friends about Nigerian culture and norms they wonder our social culture and norms grow from generations to generations, I am proud to be a Nigerian. Thanks for posting this great article.
Maryam Abdullahi
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Dec 18, 2013 @ 4:16 pm
I am writing my doctorate proposal on: Marketing Africa a Tourist Destination to African Americans in the United States and i found this article very relevant for my write-up. The article has changed my thinking considerably. I must commend your effort in putting up this highly educative material. Please keep the candle burning ! We are proud of you!! Bravo!!!.
debbz
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Dec 20, 2013 @ 5:05 am
great write-up! but i think der should be an update cos we have many diverse cultures regardless of the fact that the igbo, yoruba and hausas are populous and quite a lot has changed since you wrote this. Especially in the area of gender equality in NIGERIA. All in all, this was amazing.
Sophie B.
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Jan 15, 2014 @ 3:15 pm
Hey hey guys! Love love LOVE your website, I am so proud to be studying this wonderful country. Thank you for making my life better with this website. Lots of hugs and kisses
Billy H
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Jan 22, 2014 @ 2:02 am
Thx for helping me do my project you guys are a great help to all the other people who need this site.
wendy
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Feb 1, 2014 @ 2:02 am
Interesting but I need the history of fashion in Lagos state
Saphire Lewis
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Apr 10, 2014 @ 11:11 am
hey, just wanted to say thanks for the info, i needed this for an english prodject.
alec miller
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Apr 16, 2014 @ 4:16 pm
im in detention and doing work at school and im glad i found this web site, my partner will be pleased
ngendahayo
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Apr 18, 2014 @ 10:10 am
Women in nigeria should be given rights to equal to their counterparts
bre casiley
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Jun 25, 2014 @ 11:11 am
great work. very interesting and insightful. i have a profile of nigeria to do and this was a one stop shop
Johnny Konneh
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Jul 21, 2014 @ 8:20 pm
Great information I learned from this article when engaged in some form of cultural research. Very rich information.
Many thanks.
JMK
Mary
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Sep 16, 2014 @ 5:17 pm
Nigeria is a blessed land
I'm blessed and happy to be Nigerian
It good to know where you came from
I love it
Adam Muhammad Saleh
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Oct 23, 2014 @ 9:09 am
Good write-up and the article is very interesting, I'm not history student but I learned a lot about my country, my advice is that, the article needs update.
TNX

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