Hopi-Tewa

ETHNONYM: Tano

The Hopi-Tewa are a Tewa-speaking American Indian group who live in the pueblo of Hano on First Mesa on the Hopi Indian Reservation in northeastern Arizona. From the fourteenth to the seventeenth centuries the ancestors of the Hopi-Tewa occupied several pueblo communities in the Galisteo Basin, south of present-day Santa Fe, New Mexico. In the fourteenth century their ancestors are estimated to have numbered between fourteen hundred and four thousand people.

About 1692, following the return of the Spanish after the Pueblo Revolt of 1680, many Tano took refuge among their northern neighbors, the Tewa. About 1696 some Tano migrated to Hopi territory and settled there, establishing the pueblo of Hano (Tewa Village) on First Mesa; thereafter they are known as the Hopi-Tewa. The Hopi-Tewa maintained much of the Tano cultural pattern, but added herding to their economic activities and some Hopi elements to their own Religious beliefs and practices. In 1975 the Hopi-Tewa numbered about 625 and were located in several villages in northeastern Arizona.

The Hopi-Tewa were primarily horticulturalists who raised maize, beans, and squash; however, hunting and gathering were also important in their subsistence pattern. Herding, horticulture, and other traditional activities remained the subsistence base for the majority of the Hopi-Tewa up until the 1950s. Since that time wage work has increasingly become the most important source of income and subsistence. Hopi-Tewa society was organized into matrilineal, matrilocal, exogamous clans. Clan affiliation determined Membership in one of two kiva groups, and the winter solstice ceremony was the most important religious rite.

See also


Bibliography

Dozier, Edward P. (1954). The Hopi-Tewa of Arizona. University of California Publications in American Archaeology and Ethnology, 44. Berkeley.

Stanislawski, Michael B. (1979). "Hopi-Tewa." In Handbook of North American Indians. Vol. 9, Southwest, edited by Alfonso Ortiz, 587-602. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution.

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