ETHNONYMS: Kwagulth, Kwakiool, Kwawkewlth, Kwawkwakawakw, Southern Kwakiutl
Kin Groups and Descent. Each local group comprised several loosely structured, exogamous, nonunilineal descent groups ( numayms). Affiliation with these was nominally ambilineal with pronounced patrilineal bias. Numayms disappeared several generations ago.
Kinship Terminology. Cousin terminology was of Hawaiian type; aunt terms, lineal.
Boas, Franz (1897). The Social Organization and Secret Societies of the Kwakiutl Indians. United States National Museum Annual Report, 1895, 311-738. Washington, D.C.
Boas, Franz (1909). The Kwakiutl of Vancouver Island. American Museum of Natural History, Memoir no. 8, 307-515. New York.
Boas, Franz (1966). Kwakiutl Ethnography. Edited by Helen Codere. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Curtis, Edward S. (1915). The North American Indian. Vol. 10. Norwood, Mass. Reprint. Johnson Reprint Corp., 1970.
Rohner, Ronald P. (1967). The People of Gilford: A Contem-porary Village. National Museum of Canada Bulletin no. 225. Ottawa.