The people of Germany are known as Germans. Foreigners began immigrating to find work in Germany in the late 1950s.
The people of Ghana are called Ghanaians. There are more than twenty-five different languages spoken by the different groups in Ghana.
Modern Ghana was established in 1957, when colonial subjects of the Gold Coast ended more than seventy-five years of British rule. For the previous ten years, nationalists had conducted nonviolent boycotts, demonstrations, and mass strikes against the British.
The people of Greece are called Greeks. Minority groups include Turks, Macedonian Slavs, Albanians, Armenians, Bulgarians, and Vlachs (a group of semi-nomads who live in the mountains of the north).
There were two early societies in the area of present-day Greece. The Minoan civilization (c.2600–1200 BC) on the island of Crete was named after the legendary King Minos.
The people of Grenada are called Grenadians. Blacks, together with those of mixed black and white ancestry, make up over 90 percent of the population.
Grenada was first sighted by Christopher Columbus in 1498, although he never landed there. The Caribs who inhabited the island drove off all settlers, both English and French, for more than one hundred and fifty years.
The people of Guatemala are called Guatemalans. The population has a larger proportion of Amerindians (native people) than any other country in Central America.
The Maya Indian civilization, thought to have evolved in about AD 100, established a number of city-states in what is now Guatemala. The largest of these, Tikal, covered ten square miles and included two hundred major stone structures, including high-rise temples and palaces.
The people of Guinea are called Guineans. There are about twenty-four ethnic groups.
People have lived in the land now known as Guinea since the Stone Age. The Malinkes of Upper Guinea trace their ancestry to the founders of the great Mali Empire (AD 1200–1350).
The people of Guyana are called Guyanans. A little more than half of the population is of Asian Indian descent.
Guyana's official name is Cooperative Republic of Guyana. It is an independent republic and a member of the British Commonwealth.
The people of Haiti are called Haitians. About 95 percent of the inhabitants are black, and 5 percent are mulatto (mixed black and white).
Sharing the Caribbean island of Hispaniola with the Dominican Republic, Haiti occupies a rich, lush land in a strategic location. Much of its history has been shaped by three foreign powers: Spain, France, and the United States.
The people of Honduras are called Hondurans. The majority (more than 90 percent) are mestizo (mixture of white and Amerindian—native people).
The people of Hungary are called Hungarians. The majority of the population are of Hungarian, or Magyar, descent.
The population of Iceland is almost entirely descended from the original settlers from Norway in the late ninth and early tenth centuries.
The Republic of Iceland (Lýdveldidh Ísland) is a country of dramatic contrasts and contradictions. It is located near the Arctic Circle but is considered part of Europe.
With a total population approaching 1 billion, India is the second most populous nation on earth after China. Collectively, the people of India are called Indians or Asian Indians.
The Andhras are also known as Telugu. Their traditional home is the land between the Godavari and Kistna (Krishna) rivers in southeastern India.
Gujaratis live in Gujarat, one of the western states in India. The name comes from "Gujara," a branch of the White Huns.
The Oriya are the dominant ethnic group in India's eastern state of Orissa. They share historical and cultural traditions that date to the sixth century BC.
"Rajput" identifies numerous ksatriya or warrior castes in northern and western India. The term "Rajput" comes from rajaputra, which means "son of kings." Rajputs are famed for their fighting abilities and once ruled numerous Indian princely states.
Indonesia, with over 195 million inhabitants, is the fourth-most-populous country in the world (after China, India, and the United States.) Collectively, the people of Indonesia are called Indonesians. However, by one estimate, there are more than 250 distinct cultural groups (sukus) in Indonesia, speaking as many as 700 languages.
Much of the outside world's image of Indonesia is based on Bali, which is a prime tourist destination. However, Balinese culture is very different from the national mainstream, especially in its unique Hindu-animist religion.
The Sundanese are the second-largest ethnic group in Indonesia. There is a complex history behind their rich cultural traditions.
The people of Iran are called Iranians. People who trace their descent to Iran, sometimes called Persians (a historical name for Iran), are nearly half the total population of Iran.
Iran, known since ancient times as Persia, has had a long and turbulent history. Its location at the crossroads of Europe and Asia has resulted in many invasions and migrations.
The people of Iraq are known as Iraqis. The Kurds, an Islamic non-Arab people, are the largest and most important minority group, constituting about 19 percent.
The people of Ireland are called Irish. Throughout history, Ireland has been inhabited by Celts, Norsemen, French Normans, and English, and these groups have been so intermingled that no purely ethnic divisions remain.
The Republic of Ireland, which consists of twenty-six counties, covers five-sixths of the island of Ireland. The remaining portion is occupied by the six counties of Northern Ireland, which is part of the United Kingdom.
Of Israel's estimated population of 5.2 million, about 82 percent are Jews and 18 percent are non-Jews. Of the non-Jews, 76 percent are Muslims, 15 percent are Arab Christians, and 9 percent are Druzes or members of other ethnic groups.
The modern state of Israel was established in 1948 as a homeland for the Jewish people, who had been living in exile for two thousand years. Jews from all over the world have immigrated to Israel.
The people of Italy are called Italians. For centuries, the majority of Italy's people came from similar ethnic backgrounds.
The people of Jamaica are called Jamaicans. About 95 percent of the population is of partial or total African descent.