Kurds






PRONUNCIATION: KURDS

LOCATION: Turkey; Iraq; Syria; Iran; Lebanon; Armenia; Azerbaijan; Germany

POPULATION: 5–22 million

LANGUAGE: Kurdish

RELIGION: Islam

1 • INTRODUCTION

Kurds have almost never had a country of their own. "Kurdistan" is the mountainous area where the borders of Iraq, Iran, and Turkey meet. The average altitude is 6,000 feet (1,950 meters) and much of the land is inaccessible (difficult to reach). For most of their history Kurds have been a part of the Persian and Ottoman empires. (The Persian Empire became modern Iran. The Ottoman Empire became modern Turkey.)

From 1920 to 1923, an independent Kurdistan existed. In 1923, Kurdistan was divided between the two countries that are Iraq and Turkey today. Since then, the Kurds have been divided between Iran, Iraq, Syria, and Turkey. They have struggled to build an independent nation. Guerrilla fighters called peshmerga (one who faces death) fight to win territory for Kurdistan. The long years of war and hostility between Iran and Iraq have put the Kurds in a very difficult position. They have large communities in both countries and are constantly caught in the fighting between the two countries. In Turkey, the Kurdistan Workers Party (PKK) is a radical group that campaigns for Kurdish independence. The PKK is a terrorist organization. Sometimes they resort to killing of civilians to further their cause. Because of this, many Kurds oppose them.

2 • LOCATION

Population estimates for the Kurds range from 5 million to 22 million. More Kurds live in Turkey than anywhere else. They are the second-largest ethnic group in Turkey, Iraq, and Syria. They are the third-largest group (after Azerbaijanis) in Iran. Kurds also live in Lebanon, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Germany, and other places across Europe, the United States, Canada, and Australia. Although they live among them, Kurds are ethnically unrelated to Turks, Arabs, and Iranians.

3 • LANGUAGE

The Kurdish language is related to Persian (or Farsi), the language spoken in Iran. Kurdish, like Persian, has also borrowed many words from the Arabic language. Until 1991, it was illegal to speak Kurdish in Turkey except at home. The skillful use of language is highly valued by Kurds. Cleverness and a command of poetry are considered important skills.

COMMON KURDISH WORDS
COMMON KURDISH WORDS

English Kurdish Pronunciation
bread nan NAHN
you tu TOO
friend yar YAHR
child zar ZAHR
water av AHV

Modern Kurdish names are mostly Arabic or Persian. The mother usually names her child. Kurds did not traditionally use surnames (last names), so most modern surnames are tribal designations or geographic locations.

4 • FOLKLORE

Modern-day Kurds are descendants of ancient Indo-European peoples known as the Medes. They moved into the Middle East 4,000 years ago. The Muslim hero Saladin (Salah Ad-Din Yusuf Ibn Ayyub, AD 1137–93) was a Kurd, as were many of his soldiers. Saladin became the sultan (king) of Egypt and Syria in 1174.

A well-known folktale, "Kawe the Blacksmith and Zohak," explains the origin of Nawruz, the Persian New Year celebration. According to the story, Zohak was an evil king who enslaved the Kurds. One year, on the first day of spring, Kawe the Blacksmith led the Kurds in a revolt against Zohak. They surrounded Zohak's palace, and Kawe charged past the guards. He grabbed Zohak by the neck with a powerful blacksmith's hand, and struck Zohak on the head with his hammer. The Kurds set bonfires on the mountaintops to announce their freedom from Zohak. The event is said to have taken place around 700 BC .

5 • RELIGION

The Kurds at first resisted the Islamic invasion during the seventh century AD . They gave in after the Islamic victory near the modern-day Iraqi city of Sulaimaniya in AD 643. Most Kurds are now Sunni Muslims (a branch of Islam). About one-fifth are Shi'ite Muslims, most of whom live in Iran.

Many Kurds belong to Sufi (Islam mystic) brotherhoods. They meet to chant and dance together to worship Allah. The Sufi brotherhoods are very important in Kurdish village life. There are about 1 million Kurdish 'Alawis (a secretive faith based on and distinct from Islam) in Turkey, and 40,000 to 70,000 Yazidis mostly in Armenia and Azerbaijan. Yazidism is a small religion that combines aspects of Islam, Judaism, and Christianity. A very few Kurds are Christian.

6 • MAJOR HOLIDAYS

The most important Kurdish holiday is the Nawruz , or Persian New Year. It is celebrated at the time of the spring equinox, or first day of spring (March 21). There are special foods, fireworks, dancing, singing, and poetry recitations. Spring flowers (such as tulips, hyacinths, and pussy willows) are cut, new clothes are worn, and pottery is smashed for good luck. Families spend the day in the country, enjoying nature and the fresh growth of spring. During the thirteen days after Nawruz, families visit each other and visit the graves of dead relatives. Everyone tries to resolve any conflicts or misunderstandings that may be carried from the year before.

Even though most Kurds are longer nomads, they continue to celebrate important dates associated with that way of life. These include lambing time, celebration before moving the herds to summer pastures, shearing time, and the time of return to the village in the fall. Islamic holidays vary in importance among individual Kurds.

7 • RITES OF PASSAGE

The greatest occasion for celebration in a Kurd's life is marriage. Kurds marry young, at about seventeen or eighteen. The bride is dressed in gold bracelets, earrings and necklaces, and a new dress and shoes. The highlight of the wedding is the public procession from the home of the bride to the home of the groom.

After they reach the groom's home, the veiled bride enters the house and sits quietly in a corner of the room while the guests feast and dance outside. In some areas, there are horse-riding displays.

Parents and relatives hold a feast for the birth of a child, especially the birth of a first son. Most boys are circumcised during the first week after birth. In some more traditional Kurdish communities, boys are circumcised at age ten, followed by a huge party.

8 • RELATIONSHIPS

The Kurds are very family oriented. Family lines are patriarhcal—traced along the father's ancestry. Marriage between first cousins is common. A man often marries the daughter of one of his father's brothers. This practice is common among many cultures.

Tribal leadership among the Kurds is inherited. However, local leaders are chosen for their personal qualities, including integrity, generosity, and skill at dealing with government officials.

9 • LIVING CONDITIONS

Most Kurds live in small villages in remote mountain regions. A typical Kurdish house is made of mud-brick with a wooden roof. In the summer, Kurds sleep on the roof where it is cooler. Some homes have under-ground rooms to use in the winter to escape the cold. There is rarely indoor plumbing. Water is carried into the house in jars and cans from a central village well. There is no central heating.

The few remaining nomadic Kurds live in tents made of blackened hides. Extended family members cluster their tents together in small communities.

There are only a few Kurdish towns: Diyarbakir (a sort of capital for Kurds) and Van in Turkey; Erbil and Kirkuk in Iraq; and Mahabad in Iran.

10 • FAMILY LIFE

Few Kurds marry non-Kurds. Couples may live with one or the other's family after marrying, but they have rooms of their own and separate housekeeping arrangements. Men and women both work in the fields, and boys and girls start helping at an early age.

Kurdish women were traditionally not veiled except during parts of the marriage ceremony. They freely associated with men in most gatherings. If there was no qualified male heir, a woman could become a tribal leader. Even today, living in countries with conservative Islamic governments, many Kurdish women fight alongside the men as peshmerga (guerilla fighters). More than 1,000 peshmerga are women. The radical Kurdistan Workers Party (PKK) encourages freedom for women.

11 • CLOTHING

Traditionally, Kurdish women wore colorful skirts and blouses. Men wore baggy, colorful pants with a plain shirt having very full sleeves, which were tied at the elbow. Bright-colored vests and sashes (often red) were worn over the shirt. A man wore a blue silk turban on his head, and often completed his costume with a dagger worn at the waist. Traditionally, nomadic Kurdish men shaved their heads and wore long moustaches. Women wore bright, colorful, heavily embroidered clothing.

Traditional dress is becoming rare. Kurds generally dress like the people of the countries where they live. In Iran, women must wear a cloth covering their hair and clothes. In Turkey, on the other hand, the government has banned women from covering their hair in universities and public jobs. Women there are required to wear more Western-style clothing. In Iraq, men wear woolen coats and vests, checkered head-scarves, and baggy pants. Women wear the Muslim-style dress, often with baggy trousers underneath. The traditional Kurdish shoe, the klash, is a soft crocheted mocassin with a flexible sole.

12 • FOOD

Bulghur (cracked wheat) used to be the staple food for Kurds. Rice is becoming more popular. The Kurdish diet includes a wide variety of fruits and vegetables. Cucumbers are especially common. In the valleys where grapes are grown, raisins and grape jam are common. Meat is only eaten on special occasions. The usual beverage is tea. Kurdish specialties include a type of wafer bread eaten for breakfast, and any kind of grain cooked in whey.

A recipe for a flatbread appears on the next page.

Recipe

Nane Casoki
(Bulghur Bread)

Ingredients

  • 2 cups bulghur (cracked wheat)
  • 1 teaspoon salt
  • ½ cup onion, finely chopped
  • 2 cups boiling water
  • 2 cups unbleached white flour

Directions

  1. Combine the bulghur, salt, and onion.
  2. Pour the boiling water over the mixture and let stand for 30 minutes.
  3. Put in a food processor and process for about 20 seconds.
  4. Add 1 cup of flour and process again until it is a smooth texture.
    (You can also work the flour in by hand, if you do not have a food processor.)
  5. Turn the mixture out onto a well-floured surface and knead it, adding flour as necessary to keep the dough from sticking, for about 3 to 4 minutes.
  6. Cover the dough and let it rest for at least 15 minutes, or up to 3 hours.
  7. Place a large baking sheet (or two small ones) on the bottom rack of the oven, leaving an inch of space between the sheet and the walls of the oven. Preheat the oven to 450° F .
  8. After the dough has rested, divide it into 8 pieces and flatten each piece on the well-floured surface.
  9. With a rolling pin, roll each piece of dough to a very thin round about 8 to 10 inches in diameter.
  10. Place the bread on the baking sheet and bake for 1½ to 2 minutes. Turn the bread over and bake for another minute, or until the bread begins to brown around the edges.

Note: For crispier bread, increase baking time until the bread is spotted with brown all over.

Wrap the baked bread in a clean kitchen towel to keep warm while rolling out and baking the rest of the dough. Serve warm or at room temperature. Makes 8 loaves.

Adapted from Alford, Jeffrey, and Naomi Duguid. Flatbreads & Flavors: A Baker's Atlas . New York: William Morrow & Co., 1995, p. 175–76.

13 • EDUCATION

Schools are not widely available. When they are, classes are not taught in Kurdish, and so many children find school too difficult and drop out. The Kurdish literacy (the ability to read and write) rate is very low. Girls often do not attend school at all. Tradition holds that they are needed at home.

14 • CULTURAL HERITAGE

Kurdish culture has a rich oral tradition. Most popular are epic poems called lawj . These often tell of adventure in love or battle.

Kurdish literature first appeared in the seventh century AD . In 1596, Sharaf Khan, Emir of Bitlis, composed a history of the Kurds in Persian called the Sharafnama . Almost one hundred years later, in 1695, a great national epic called the Memozin was written in Kurdish by Ahmed Khani.

Traditional music is played on flute, drums, and the ut-ut (similar to a guitar). The music of Sivan Perwar, a Kurdish pop music performer, was banned in Turkey and Iraq in the 1980s, so he left the region to live and work in Sweden.

15 • EMPLOYMENT

Most Kurds are farmers and sheep-and goat-herders. They sell products from their flocks such as leather, goat cheese, and wool. Women make carpets and cloth to sell at market. Some Kurds grow tobacco. Turkish Kurds grow cotton. A few mountain Kurds are still nomadic herders.

In towns, Kurds work as shopkeepers, plumbers, teachers, bankers, and so on. Kurds work as unskilled laborers in large Turkish cities, as well as in Baghdad and Mosul in Iraq, and Tehran in Iran. Some urban Kurds work as bricklayers, butchers, cattle dealers, and small traders. The oil fields in Turkey and Iraq have attracted many Kurdish workers in recent times. Those Kurds who are able to go abroad find a variety of jobs and send the money back home.

16 • SPORTS

Popular sports include soccer, wrestling, hunting and shooting, and cirit , a traditional sport that involves throwing a javelin while mounted on horseback. Camel-and horse-racing are popular in rural areas.

17 • RECREATION

Only men go out at night. They often sit at tea houses and cafes and play backgammon or dominoes. A favorite pastime is to listen to tapes or live singers at cafes. Singers have only recently been allowed to sing publicly in Kurdish.

18 • CRAFTS AND HOBBIES

Carpet-weaving is by far the most significant Kurdish folk art. Other crafts are embroidery, leather-working, and metal ornamentation. Kurds are especially known for copper-working.

19 • SOCIAL PROBLEMS

The greatest problem for the Kurds is the unwillingness of the nations in which they live to give them cultural independence. Kurds do not currently want an independent state. They only wish to be allowed to maintain their own language and culture.

During the Iran–Iraq War (1980–88), the government of Iraq engaged in genocide to stop the Kurds from fighting for Iran. Thousands of villages were destroyed and tens of thousands of Kurds were murdered and buried in mass graves. The Iraqi government also used nerve gas (purchased from European governments) against Kurdish civilians and Iranian troops. These horrible attacks killed thousands of civilians.

One of the worst massacres occurred in the Iraqi Kurd town of Halabja. The entire population of the town was killed. After the Persian Gulf War (1991), thousands more Kurds were forced into refugee camps. Some of these areas are now protected by the United Nations (UN).

Since 1991, the government of Turkey has attacked Kurdish civilian centers inside the UN-protected areas. Many thousands of Kurds have now fled to Iran. The government there is less hostile, but it has trouble supporting millions of refugees. To make matters worse, there is fighting even among Kurds. Two rival Kurdish groups have fought small wars over who truly represents the Kurdish people. Meanwhile, the Kurdish civilians continue to suffer.

20 • BIBLIOGRAPHY

Alford, Jeffrey, and Naomi Duguid. Flatbreads & Flavors: A Baker's Atlas . New York: William Morrow & Co., 1995.

Bulloch, John, and Harvey Morris. No Friends But the Mountains: The Tragic History of the Kurds. New York: Viking, 1992.

King, John. Kurds. New York: Thomson Learning, 1994.

Moss, Joyce, and George Wilson. Peoples of the World: The Middle East and North Africa , 1st ed. Detroit: Gale Research, 1992.

WEBSITES

Embassy of Turkey, Washington, D.C. [Online] Available http://www.turkey.org/turkey/ , 1998.

Human Rights. The Kurds. [Online] Available http://www.humanrights.de/~kurdweb/children , 1998.

Kurds. [Online] Available http://www.itlink.se/lasse/Sol/Library/Struggle/kurds.html , 1998.

World Travel Guide, Turkey. [Online] Available http://www.wtgonline.com/country/tr/gen.html , 1998.



User Contributions:

roshi
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May 22, 2006 @ 6:06 am
i appreciate that artical coz i collect whole information about kurds.kurds are very nice people if they want their independed country than incourged them they are very hardworker.
pamela
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Apr 28, 2008 @ 3:15 pm
I thought this page was very interestin 2 read, as i am going 2 b marrying a kurdish man
A
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Jul 19, 2009 @ 12:12 pm
Every source I've read has always stated that Kurds are ethinically Iranian. Culture and Language belong in with the other Iranic people. I once heard someone speak Farsi(persian) I just could believe how similar it sounded to Kurdish and I've found out that even many words are similar. Kurds are a Iranian people but not all of them live in Iran.
Jeani Lombardio
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Sep 1, 2009 @ 4:16 pm
WOW!!! this realy helped. I mean I had a social studies project about the Kurds and this rele helps
Bailey
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Nov 29, 2009 @ 2:14 pm
this article helped me out alot. i am doing a project for school about the kurds and needed soome info about them.
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Mar 8, 2010 @ 12:12 pm
I am a Kurd myself and I think this is a brilliant websites for journalist to explore because this website actually tells almost everything about my country. I am pleased that people are interested in my culture. By the way I am 11 years old and I now live in England as a Kurd.

regards.
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May 12, 2010 @ 12:00 am
I am not Kurd. I am French speaking but I will try to write in English.

Kurds are one of the most ancient nation in Middle-East : their ancestors were the Medes. Many believe that it was an Arab king who won against the European Crusaders : in fact, Saladin was a Kurd king who succeeded to unify the Arabic tribes under his own Kurdish army.

During their Irak invasion, USA was very careful to keep the Kurds on their side : History would have been different if they had the Kurds as their enemy. For decades, since more than a century, Europeans states and USA promised the Kurds their own national country but never kept their promises and many times betrayed the Kurdish nation.

One Kurdistan for all Kurds !
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Jun 30, 2010 @ 10:10 am
i found this very interesting as i am so 2 be marring a kurdish man...
Ben J.
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Nov 18, 2010 @ 1:13 pm
I just recently discovered this site, and I'm already a huge fan.

This article is wonderful, and very in-depth. However, I'd like to make a suggestion - for the line

"There are only a few Kurdish towns: Diyarbakir (a sort of capital for Kurds) and Van in Turkey; Erbil and Kirkuk in Iraq; and Mahabad in Iran."

I would suggest that you call these 'Cities,' most of them have more than a million people in the metropolitan area. The way it's worded now would imply that Kurds live in mostly rural conditions, whereas Kurdistan actually has some major urban population centers.
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Nov 29, 2010 @ 7:19 pm
THANKS this really helped i had a culture day project and i chose the way Kurds celebrate new years.yall helped me so much i got an a+ on my paper and poster thanks so much i love you guys and girls bye
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Dec 6, 2010 @ 5:17 pm
im a kurd myself, and kurds were never arabs or never had an arab king, and they arent iranian people, the kurdish language just has a few words like the iranian language, and they have their own religion, and thats Saredast, this was however denied by the islamic religion when they invaded Kurdistan, and the European and USA broke never promises to Kurdistan, the USA saved Kurdistan twice, 1 in 1992, when they put a No-Fly zone on Kurdistan, and second in 2003, when they invaded iraq for overthrowing saddam hussein, and other countries like Iraq,Turkey,Iran,Saudi Arabia and other arab countries hate kurdistan, so i dont understand why this information didnt put this in it, and why does one of the comments say they only have a few towns, this is not true, they have alot of towns,
Derbendikhan
Kiefry
Kalar
Khanaqin
Qeratapa
Jabara
Jawlala
Zakho and many others
Cities:
Duhok
Sulimaniya
Erbil(Capital of Kurdistan)
Diyarbakir(Turkey)
Karmanshan(Iran)
and there alot of other cities in Turkey and Iran and in Syria
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Jan 11, 2011 @ 1:01 am
i love the kurdish culture, they are a beautiful and proud people...
Lindsay
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Apr 11, 2011 @ 9:21 pm
I was assigned a project for the culture of the Iraqi Kurds. This was my main source. Thank you so much! This page is a life saver! :)
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Apr 21, 2011 @ 3:15 pm
My boy friend is kurd and he is such a wonderful man. He treats me with love and respect. Reading this article help me more to understand his kurdish roots.
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Apr 21, 2011 @ 3:15 pm
My boy friend is kurd and he is such a wonderful man. He treats me with love and respect. Reading this article help me more to understand his kurdish roots.
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Jul 26, 2011 @ 10:22 pm
I wish I can establish a school and a housing subdivision in Cavite, Philippines for the Kurds.
stacey
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Aug 1, 2011 @ 4:16 pm
yes hello i need advise i am happy with a kirdish guy he has been in england for 7 years now i have been very close to him for just over 2 years and would really like to marry him do you think this would be possible i really want to convert to muslim as its a very good religion and i believe that the religion is a good one and i love this man very much but i dont want his family to be upset with him what do u think i shoud do i really need answers and help as this is my heart and future im messing about with here please help me ?
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Aug 31, 2011 @ 12:12 pm
Hi all!

This is a grear page! I am about getting married with a kurdish man and I am trying to become closer to his kurdish heritage. I am so happy that the kurds exist and look forward to the creation of kurdistan.
Rodi
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Oct 6, 2011 @ 12:12 pm
Hi Stacey,
Honesty, generousity, respect, caring, responsibility, moralty,loyalty, pride and kindness are the main values in the kurdish culture. What makes a kurd a good person is this culture, but not islam. I find non-muslim kurds even better, because islam had a destroying influence on the kurdish culture. I'm myself muslim, but we have to speak the truth. No need to convert to islam. Instead, try to learn kurdish language. His family, friends, and in general all kurds will love and respect you. A good command of kurdish language is very important, because they themselves don't speak well, and when they see a foreigner who can speak their language better than themselves, they feel ashamed, and very highly value and repect that person. Don't let religion play a dividing role between you; make kurdish cultur, language and their struggle for freedom a bridge, a connecting point between you and them.

I have a foreign girlfriend. She is in love with me because of my culture.
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Oct 8, 2011 @ 8:08 am
I am happy to learn about Kurdish background , colorful people however i would like to know what did the ancient Kuds worship before Muslims invation.
PIER
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Dec 19, 2011 @ 7:07 am
What can be said about the patriarchal family? I have been told by turkish people that they create some macro-famlies where one man can even have 90-100 children, and these children create their own macro-family, etc...in this way they can create their own little army, to fight against another enemy family. I have also been told that if a girl of a family likes a man of another family she can even be killed. Is this so, can you confirm this?
Rebin
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Jan 24, 2012 @ 1:13 pm
Hi everybody
I want to let you know that what makes the kurds different from the rest of the world is their original thinking about the story of (Adam and Eve) which we completely disagree with all the major religions(Islam,judaisim and,christanity) assume about that story. I mean the story of disagreement between God and Satan. and the basis of the story is the main pillar in our oldest religion which is Yazidism.I will tell you the story if you are interested.thank you
Hamid Yusefi
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Feb 27, 2012 @ 2:14 pm
I am Kurd too. I thank u all guys for your nice comments. I wish freedom for all tribes, rice, human.and most importantly my nation
vanessa
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Dec 4, 2012 @ 3:03 am
my husband is kurdesh but im a philippine its hard for me to do all his tradition just because one day i know he need to marry asame nationality just because of the tradition of the family
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Oct 23, 2013 @ 10:10 am
Hello .
I am also Kurd & I am from Kurdistan . You have to know Kurdish people are not same as Arabic people never . Kurdish people are very smart, helpful & honest .
rose
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Jan 8, 2014 @ 6:06 am
I have a boyfriend Kurdistan from Iraq.We are both working here in Denmark.He lives here for almost 14 years. He is invited me to visit in Iraq.I am from Philippines, as currently au pair in Denmark.Is it possible that I can go with him in Iraq?Is it safe to go in Iraq?all answers are appreciated.thanks in advance:-)
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Feb 8, 2014 @ 6:06 am
LOVE MY COUNTRY KURDISTAN AND ALL THE INFORMATION AND FOOD AND CLOTHING
alan
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Feb 18, 2014 @ 5:17 pm
the population of kurds just in iraq is almost 7 millions and in turkey 23% of turkish population are kurds it estimates as 21-22 million kurds and totally kurds are 45 millions.
Sharon
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May 31, 2014 @ 2:02 am
I to have a Kurdish boyfriend they nicest man you could ever meet x
sazan
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Aug 27, 2014 @ 4:04 am
Im also a kurd girl.. Im so aproud of our history...and one thing that every one must to know.. The kurd people are not same with arab its complitly difrent :)
asiti
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Sep 8, 2014 @ 10:10 am
hi all!
first I have to specifying that I am also Kurd and from Kurdistan of
Turkey. I want to fix some information from reading that about PKK. this social, political and warrior organization or party is absolutely not terrorist and they never ever attacked or killed civilian people. they are fighting against Turkish army. if some one looking for who is the terrorist, just examine the last ten years rate of illegal death, who is killer and who is the dead? I am not a nationalist person and please be honest and after looking for culture, who is the protect our culture and try to rebuild.
thanks for interest.
ja lo
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Sep 29, 2014 @ 5:17 pm
wow this helped out lot thank you very much I had a project and now I can complete it! thanks !

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