Chakmas



PRONUNCIATION: chahk-MAHZ

ALTERNATE NAMES: Changma; Sawngma

LOCATION: Bangladesh; India; Myanmar (Burma)

POPULATION: 550,000

LANGUAGE: Bengali dialect (Bangla)

RELIGION: Theravada (Southern) Buddhism

1 • INTRODUCTION

Chakma is the name of the largest tribe found in the hilly area of eastern Bangladesh known as the Chittagong Hill Tracts. Their name was first used by British census-takers to describe certain hill people.

When the British were driven from India in 1947, the land was divided into two countries, Pakistan and India. The people who lived in the Chittagong Hill Tracts region expected to become part of India. Instead, the region was given to Pakistan. This caused resentment because the people, mostly Chakma, are primarily Buddhist. They saw themselves more culturally similar to the Hindu peoples of India than the Muslims of Pakistan.

Pakistan's two regions were known as East Pakistan (where the Chakma lived) and West Pakistan. In 1971, East Pakistan fought successfully to win independence from West Pakistan. East Pakistan then became the nation of Bangladesh. The Chakma felt just as alienated from the Bangladesh government as they had from Pakistan. In 1973, the Shanti Bahini (Peace Force) began to stage violent attacks against the government to try to win independence for the Chittagong Hill Tracts. Guerrillas attacked government forces and the Bangladeshi Army responded with attacks on civilian tribal peoples. As of the late 1990s, this conflict continued.

2 • LOCATION

The Chakma population is estimated to be around 550,000. It is spread over three different countries. The majority (approximately 300,000 people) are located in the Chittagong Hill Tracts of Bangladesh. There are also about 80,000 Chakmas in Mizoram State in India, and 20,000 in Burma (Myanmar).

The Chakmas are a Mongoloid people related to people of southwestern Burma. The Chittagong Hills form part of the western fringe of the mountain regions of Burma and eastern India. The region has warm temperatures, monsoon rains, and high humidity.

3 • LANGUAGE

The Chakmas speak a dialect of Bengali (Bangla) and use the standard Bengali alphabet. See the article on Bangladeshis in this chapter.

4 • FOLKLORE

The myth that describes the origin of the Chakma traces the tribe to the ancient kingdom of Champaknagar. One of the king's sons marched east with a large army in the hope of conquering new lands. He crossed the "sea" of the Meghna River and captured the kingdom of Arakan in Burma, where he settled. His people intermarried with the Burmese and gradually adopted the Buddhist religion.

The last king of this dynasty was a ruler named Sher Daulat. He was credited with supernatural powers and was supposed to purify himself from sin by bringing out his intestines to wash in the river. His wife, out of curiosity, hid herself and watched him do this one day. Sher Daulat found her spying on him and, in a fit of rage, killed her and all his family. His eccentricities and tyranny grew so great that finally his people killed him. Fearing the consequences of this, the people left the Arakan kingdom, moving north into the area of the Chittagong Hills they occupy today.

5 • RELIGION

The Chakmas are Buddhists. Chakmas officially follow the Southern, or Theravada, form of the Buddhism. But, their form of Buddhism has aspects of Hinduism and traditional religions as well.

Almost every Chakma village has a Buddhist temple (kaang). Buddhist priests or monks are called Bhikhus. They preside at religious festivals and ceremonies. The villagers support their monks with food, gifts, and offerings to Buddha.

The Chakmas also worship Hindu deities. Lakshmi, for example, is worshipped as the Goddess of the Harvest. Chakmas offer the sacrifice of goats, chickens, or ducks to calm the spirits that are believed to bring fevers and disease. Even though animal sacrifice is totally against Buddhist beliefs, the Chakma Buddhist priests ignore the practice.

6 • MAJOR HOLIDAYS

Chakmas celebrate various Buddhist festivals. The most important is Buddha Purnima. This is the anniversary of three important events in Buddha's life—his birth, his attainment of enlightenment, and his death. It is observed on the full moon day of the month of Vaisakh (usually in May).

On this and other festival days, Chakmas put on their best clothes and visit the temple. There, they offer flowers to the image of Buddha, light candles, and listen to sermons from the priests. Alms (offerings) are given to the poor, and feasts are held for the priests.

The three-day festival known as Bishu , which coincides with the Bengali New Year's Day, is celebrated with much enthusiasm. Houses are decorated with flowers, young children pay special attention to the elderly to win their blessings, and festive dishes are prepared for guests.

7 • RITES OF PASSAGE

After the birth of a child, the father places some earth near the birth bed and lights a fire on it. This is kept burning for five days. Afterward, the earth is thrown away and the mother and child are bathed. A woman is considered unclean for a month after childbirth and is not allowed to cook food during this period. Children are breastfed for several years by their mothers.

Chakmas cremate their dead. The body is bathed, dressed, and laid out on a bamboo platform. Relatives and villagers visit the body. A drum used only at this time is beaten at intervals. Cremation usually occurs in the afternoon. The ritual is presided over by a priest.

Buddists believe in reincarnation. This means that they believe that the dead person's spirit will return to earth in another living form. The morning after the cremation, relatives visit the cremation ground to search for footprints. They believe that the departed will have left some mark of his or her new incarnation (living form). Some remains of bones are collected, put in an earthen pot, and placed in a nearby river.

The mourning period for the family lasts for seven days. No fish or animal flesh is eaten during this time. On the seventh day, the final ritual (Satdinya) is held. At this time the family offers food to their ancestors, Buddhist monks deliver religious discourses, offerings are made to the monks, and the entire village participates in a communal feast.

8 • RELATIONSHIPS

Chakma hospitality is overflowing. Guests are given home-brewed liquor and the hukka (hooka) pipe. The hukka is a pipe used for smoking tobacco. It has a long flexible tube attached to a water bottle. The smoke is cooled by passing over the water before being inhaled by the smoker.

Chakmas greet each other with the traditional cry, Hoya! This exuberant shout is also used to express pleasure at victory in sports such as tug-of-war that accompany the numerous hill festivals held throughout the year. After living for so many years near Muslims, some Chakmas use the Muslim greeting, Salaam.

9 • LIVING CONDITIONS

Chakmas build their houses on slopes near the banks of a river or a stream. A few related families may build on the same plot of land, creating a homestead (bari). Baris cluster together to form hamlets (para) and a number of hamlets make up a village (gram).

The traditional Chakma house is made of bamboo. It is constructed on a bamboo or wooden platform about two meters (six feet) above the ground. The house is built on the rear of the platform. Mat walls divide the house into separate compartments. A porch in the front of the house is divided in two by a mat partition. One area is used by men and boys and the other by women and girls. Small compartments may be built for storage of grain and other possessions. Household objects ranging from baskets to pipes for smoking tobacco are made out of bamboo.

10 • FAMILY LIFE

Chakmas are divided into clans (gojas), which are further subdivided into subclans (guttis). Members of the same subclan are forbidden to marry each other. Parents arrange marriages, although the wishes of sons and daughters are taken into account. A bride price (goods given by groom's family to bride's family) is fixed when the two families negotiate the marriage.

The marriage ceremony is known as Chumulong and is performed by Buddhist priests. If young people elope, the marriage can be formalized on payment of fines. Polygyny (marriage to more than one wife) is acceptable but rare. Divorce is allowed, as is remarriage after the death of a spouse.

11 • CLOTHING

Chakma men have given up their traditional clothes for Western-style shirts and trousers. It is the women who maintain the traditional Chakma style of dress, which consists of two pieces of cloth. One is worn as a skirt, wrapped around the lower part of the body and extending from waist to ankle. Its traditional color is black or blue, with a red border at top and bottom.

The second piece of cloth is a breast-band, woven with colored designs, that is tightly wrapped around the upper body. This is worn with a variety of necklaces, bracelets, anklets, rings, and other ornaments. Chakma women are skilled weavers and make their own cloth.

12 • FOOD

The staple food of the Chakmas is rice, supplemented by millet, corn (maize), vegetables, and mustard. Vegetables include yams, pumpkins, melons, and cucumbers. Vegetables and fruit gathered from the forest may be added to the diet. Fish, poultry, and meat (even pork) are eaten, despite the Buddhist taboo on consuming animal flesh.

Traditional diets have slowly been abandoned, as the Chakmas have been forced to flee their homeland. Some typical Chakma dishes include fish, vegetables, and spices stuffed into a length of bamboo and cooked in a low fire; foods wrapped in banana leaves and placed beside a fire; and eggs that are aged until they are rotten.

Chakmas do not like milk. They drink alcoholic beverages freely, and every household makes its own rice liquor. Alcohol is consumed at all festivals and social occasions.

13 • EDUCATION

Chakmas live in isolated areas of Bangladesh. They are not part of the majority population and are quite poor by Western standards. They do not have access to Western-style education. Literacy (ability to read and write) among men of the hill tribes is about 15 percent. This figure drops to 7 percent for women.

14 • CULTURAL HERITAGE

Buddhists books, translated into Chakma and written on palm leaves, are known as Aghartara. The Tallik is a detailed account of medicinal plants, methods of their preparation, and their use in the treatment of disease.

Folk music is a major aspect of Chakma tribal culture. It includes romantic love songs known as Ubageet. The Genkhuli ballads relate incidents from the past. There are also epic poems like Radhamon and Dhanapati.

Traditional musical instruments include a bugle made from buffalo horn, a circular piece of iron with a string stretched across it that vibrates to produce sound, and a drum. The bamboo flute is played by almost all Chakma youth. Unlike other tribal groups of the eastern hills, dancing is not an important part of Chakma life.

15 • EMPLOYMENT

The Chakmas are farmers. There is no ownership of land, but Chakma custom holds that no one should interfere with fields that look like someone else is farming there. Land is cleared of trees and bushes, and any remaining vegetation is burned during the dry season in April. Crops are planted after the first heavy rains. Harvesting usually takes place in October and November.

Some Chakmas have given up their farming lifestyle and have entered the labor market. Those fortunate enough to have the necessary education have gone on to clerical and other white collar jobs. Many, however, work as laborers in the factories and industrial projects that have grown up along the valley of the Karnafuli River.

16 • SPORTS

Ha-do-do is a game played throughout the region. Two teams stand on either side of a central line. They take turns sending a player into opposing territory to touch as many people as he or she can during the space of one breath, while at the same time saying "Ha-do-do." If the player runs out of breath or is caught by his or her opponents, he or she is out.

On the other hand, if the player successfully returns to his or her own territory, the players he or she has tagged must leave the game. Other pastimes include Gila Khela, a game similar to marbles except that small wooden disks are used instead of marbles; Nadeng Khela, played with a spinning top; and various wrestling games. Girls do not have dolls or play at being "mother" as they do in Western cultures.

17 • RECREATION

Traditional forms of recreation include popular folk songs and music, and jatra, the village opera. Wrestling and other sports held at fairs are popular. In the past, hunting and fishing were favorite pastimes.

18 • CRAFTS AND HOBBIES

The Chakma are skilled at making a variety of household goods from bamboo, often using nothing more than a simple knife. Women are expert weavers and dyers and make their own cloth called Alam. They are skilled in the art of making baskets from bamboo.

19 • SOCIAL PROBLEMS

The Chakma people face difficult situations today. Their population is larger than that of over sixty independent nations. Yet the tribe is fragmented and scattered over three countries. In each country, Chakmas form a minority and many are refugees from their homeland, living in conditions of squalor.

The most serious problem faced by the Chakmas is in Bangladesh, where they are fighting for an independent homeland. Some Chakmas and other tribal peoples have resorted to armed warfare against the government. This, in turn, has led to reprisals by the police and Bangladeshi Army. Both Amnesty International (the human rights organization) and the United States have reported human rights violations against Chakma civilians.

20 • BIBLIOGRAPHY

Brace, Steve. Bangladesh. New York: Thomson Learning, 1995.

Brown, Susan. Pakistan and Bangladesh. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Silver Burdett Press, 1989.

Chakma, Sugata. "Chakma Culture." Folklore (The Journal of the Folklore Research Institute, Bangladesh) 7 (January): 58–75, 1982.

McClure, Vimala Schneider. Bangladesh: Rivers in a Crowded Land. Minneapolis, Minn.: Dillon Press, 1989.

Talukdar, S. P. Chakmas: An Embattled Tribe. New Delhi: Uppal Publishing House, 1994.

WEBSITES

Bangladesh Web Ring. [Online] Available http://www.bangla.org , 1997.

Virtual Bangladesh. [Online] Available http://www.virtualbangladesh.com , 1998.



User Contributions:

1
darpan
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Nov 21, 2006 @ 9:09 am
this article let me know many things about chakma community.
2
deepak k. singh
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Apr 3, 2007 @ 4:04 am
I found it very informative and useful, as it provides rare information on different aspects of Chakmas' lives. I wish, however, it also had a section on the diasporic Chakma population spread across India.
3
aggadhammo bhikkhu
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Apr 14, 2007 @ 9:21 pm
being borne in chakma community i did'nt know much about chakmas, having read this article i knew so many things about chakmas.
4
Shoykat Chakma
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Apr 19, 2007 @ 5:05 am
Fine,very fine.please let me know more things about chakma.
5
Shadesh Barua
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Jun 7, 2007 @ 12:00 am
Thank you very much for such good information. Being a Buddhist and Bangalee, I do not know much about my fellow Buddhist Brothers and Sisters. I really appreciate your great effort and contribution.
6
rosang
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Oct 21, 2007 @ 8:08 am
Hi
I am a new friend in this page. I think the Chakma , Mro, Mrung, Chin, Kuki, Mizo, and the Tripuri people have the very old link of language, culture, history, and other. So Let me contact with you. And then send me the history of the Chakma people and literature history of Chakma peolple.
7
rupam chakma
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Apr 23, 2008 @ 5:05 am
The informations are helpfull.I am very much interested in writing the history of the chakma people.Currently I am doing my post-graduation in North Eastern Hill University.This site will supplement to our studies immensely.
8
Pankaj Roy
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Jul 9, 2008 @ 10:10 am
I am doing Ph.D on Chakma Folklore and Oral traditional Literature. Please send me some more details on Agartara amd Gengkuli if possible.
9
MB Talukdar
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Mar 8, 2009 @ 5:05 am
I am a student of Delhi university,B.A.2nd year.i am happy to read these articles about chakma.i welcome all chakma brethers to this websites.
10
Robin Chakma
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Mar 29, 2009 @ 8:08 am
Nice! But the Chakmas have their own scripts wihich can be compared with the Burmese scripts. Every "Taalik" and "Thara" like the "Agharthara" is written in this script. Whose initials goes as - 'Choozengye haa' 'Goozongye haa' and so on. In total there and there are some 28 characters. All of them can be considered both vowels and consonants. Apart from this there are some Burmese scripts included for easier easier pronunciation.
11
Bhante Kaccayana Chakma
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May 13, 2009 @ 8:08 am
I am person who loves our own community, the CHAKMA. So I keep on searching the articles and try to know as much a information I can get. This article gave me lots of information. Thanks to auther
12
chunnu prasad
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Jul 25, 2009 @ 1:13 pm
It is really nece to have this to the parts of the world. People come to know the chakma people their religion as well their struggle for citizenship in india. I found it very informatic not only to the people like me but all thoes who are working on the hill people.
13
Neo Castelino
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Oct 5, 2009 @ 5:17 pm
I just feel really nice and compassionate towards Chakma people. I don't know but my girlfriend is a Chakma and I just wanted to know more abt her culture and religion. Me frm Mumbai actually but I really feel that we Mumbaikar lack a lot of things such as hospitality and kindness. I think they're all available on Chakma people. She has changed my life in many ways I wud never be able to explain. From such a fast n furious life to so much peace and love and kindness. She's my life. I visited her Buddhist temple few days back and it was so nice and peaceful.
14
Gemini Chakma
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Dec 13, 2009 @ 1:13 pm
Thank you to the author(s) for the detailed information provided on this link about my people! As a Chakma living abroad, it would be nice to see a section on Chakmas who have found success in the world and have made a mark on society... It's so great to see people posting such wonderful comments! It's a breath of fresh air to be learning something new about my heritage, identity, and culture, and to share it with others.

Keep up the great work,
Gem
15
Chandra Mani Chakma
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Dec 21, 2009 @ 12:00 am
As a chakma I feel to say something about this site. I appreciated this site who have written the history of chakma. I would like to request all please write down more history of chakma and history political background of chakma and other tribes in Chittagong Hill tracts. Otherwise, this is good, with best regards, moni
16
Divine Chakma
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Dec 25, 2009 @ 11:11 am
Thanks a lot to you (author) write a nice explanation about Chakma. As a Chakma I am so glad to read this one. But I have a simple request to you in language column, "you identified Bengali but we have own language, that’s call Chakma Basha". So if you write about our language, it's a great help to spread information about Chakma. Finally Thanks again.
17
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Jul 6, 2010 @ 9:21 pm
In the history of Myanmar, there wre said to be three kingdoms of three main racial groups: Phu, Karn-yan and Thet. All of these racial groups disappeared from today's Myanmar, with a new racial group referred to as "Bamar" becoming the dominant group.

The word "Thet" comes from "ah-Thet", meaning "life". Myanmar scholars postulate that Chakmas of CHT are Thet people who migrated from Myanmar. The original kingdom of Thet, or Chakmas, was said to be located in the Central Plains of Myanmar (around today's Tha-yet district), on the western bank of Aye-yar-waddy (Irrawaddy) River. Thet people were said to have arrived there from Northern Part of India.

From the Central Plains of Myanmar, due to wars with Pyu people and due to other reasons, Thet people migrated to Arakan (Rakhine) Region. From there, again, they migrated to CHT in today's Bangladesh.

One could note that the alphabets used by Thet (or Chakmas) are almost the same as the alphabets used by Bamars and Rakhines.

Historians and Anthropologists should make a more in-depth studies about these people. Myanmar and Chakmas professionals could do joint research projects for this purpose.

As a Buddhist, I really feel a great sympathy on them for all the brutalities that tehy are being incurred.
18
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Aug 20, 2010 @ 10:22 pm
I would like to inform that the chakmas don't speak bengali and they have their own scripts which are very very far different from the bengali script
19
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Aug 26, 2010 @ 12:00 am
Thank you Dr. Than Tun Sein for giving such valuable info about the chakma people.
20
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Oct 18, 2010 @ 4:04 am
I Am a Teacher Of History.Sorry For that,writing Chakma's language is Bengali and they using Bengali script, Chakma's have own language and own scripts. chakma's bearing a traditional cultures from a long long time .
21
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Dec 17, 2010 @ 9:09 am
Thank you very much please publish more information about Chakmas.
22
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Mar 5, 2011 @ 12:00 am
Thanks to the author. We should research much more and enrirch our chakma language and literature. Pls come on. I'm with You.
23
mini chakma
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Mar 27, 2011 @ 7:07 am
The Chakmas don't actually call themselves as Chakmas but rather Changmha. It is because of the British that the name Chakma stuck, though today we Chakmas write our surnames as "Chakma" ...a Chakma fellow would never call himself a Chakma , but Changmha. Besides we have our own script known as "Ojapath" and the language is known as Changmha Vaj or Changmha Khoda. Ans the script is similar to the Burmese scripts.


The traditional smoking pipe or the hukka (Hooka) is also not called "Hukka" in the Chakma language, but "DABA" and it is made out of bamboo. Also the Chakma term for village is not "gram".. that's in Bengali, the Chakma term is "aadam"
24
dipan
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Jun 21, 2011 @ 9:21 pm
Thank you. It is not enough to know about chankma buddhist & CHT , it needs to develope
25
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Aug 14, 2011 @ 8:08 am
This article is very nice for the chakmas . I would like to give great thankful in my side n god may bless them
26
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Aug 25, 2011 @ 10:10 am
This article is very nice for the chakmas. Indigenous issues and problems of chakmas in Bangladesh.
The publicity and publications for more than ... I am impressed that you know and this is also thanks to Author.
27
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Oct 3, 2011 @ 7:07 am
Well written about the Chakmas. Thanks Dr. Than Tun Sein for giving this invaluable information about the Chakmas. I believe that the Chakmas had gone from North India because our forefathers said that we belong to Sakya dynasty meaning Kshatriya, the warriors. Kshatriyas were in India only. It is said that a situation came in the lives of the Chakmas that they were killed as soon as they were seen wearing sacred thread. So to save their lives they had to hid their identity including wearing the sacred thread and they secretly worn the sacred thread in their waists. The Chakmas still have been following this tradition of wearing that thread called "Pharadduri".
28
aiyan chakma
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Oct 6, 2011 @ 2:02 am
The informtion about chakma is very helpful for us, but chakma not lived only in Chittagong hill tract, mayanmar and mizoram. Trere are more chakma lives in Arunachal and Tripura also.
29
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Oct 27, 2011 @ 5:05 am
It is good to know about Chakma people but my request to author is to make sure of every thing such as their history, tradition and the modern life. In terms of the language they have their own language CHAKMA and it is not that they don't have ownership of land. The given data of the education is not actual and not updated. There are significant success stories in education status of Chakma. Please focus on the modern living as well. Nevertheless, there are still many challenges in regards to Human rights violation. I hope to see not only the constraint but opportunities of Chakma people in future.
Thnak you,
30
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Dec 6, 2011 @ 7:07 am
Thanks for this article. Can you or any one tell me please more about CHAKMAs who lives in Myanmar(Burma)
31
jonardhan chakma
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Jan 12, 2012 @ 3:15 pm
This article gives almost every information about Chakmas.And I just want to speak a little about Mizoram Chakmas.Chakmas in mizoram live in mainly 3 districts namely Mamait,Lunglei,Lawngtlai.the Chakmas living in Lawngtlai district have their own land which is called "CHAKMA AUTONOMUS DISTRICT COUNCIL" shortly pronounced as CADC which is located in south west of Mizoram.CADC has its own self government and enjoys executive,legislative and judicial powers.almost 50% of CADC Chakmas are employed and others depend on agriculture or seller in market.CADC is still very backward and the main reason is discrimination between the Mizos.lets not discuss about the Chakmas living in other districts of Mizoram.their condition is the worst in Mizoram.In conclusion i would say that Chakmas are still very backward and we the youngsters of Chakmas need to come over that.Mizoram Chakmas are still in peace.however,chakmas living in Arunachal Pradesh are the worst.still the govt. of arunachal pradesh did not grant citizenship for the chakmas and Hajongs(also a tribe living in AP).THANKS FOR THIS ARTICLE.If u want any information about Chakmas you can see me in Facebook.
32
Arthish Rangyah (CHAKMA)
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Jan 25, 2012 @ 10:10 am
Thanks article for informatioin of chakma history, any more information send me my e-mail id
33
Saswati Chakma
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Feb 17, 2012 @ 8:08 am
Very infromative article.Thanks for putting this up.
34
Linda
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Sep 10, 2012 @ 5:05 am
Good article. But today Chakma's are not as backward as described. Because of various measures giving special privileges , Chakama literacy is now higher than many other districts in Bangladesh. They enjoy special quota in jobs. In general they are welcome everywhere in Bangladesh. The problem is regarding the influx of Bengali people from other districts int CHT. Chakma's do not like this. Hopefully this problem will be resolved in due course.All sides should work towards that.
35
nizen chakma
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Nov 22, 2012 @ 1:01 am
i'm from cadc(mizoramg) and i don't think so chakma people speak like bengali and script .we have are own script and language which we don't use much in present days but in are cadc we have chakma dictionary ,script and we still follow are culture nicely and Speak out fluently in chakma language !
36
Nanda
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Dec 15, 2012 @ 10:10 am
Chakma History.
In history, Chakma (Sakama in Myanmar) peoples were working in Bagan Palace for Bagan King. Bagan King rule Sittagong Hill Tracts, Manipur and Assam. Chakma peoples are living in Rakhine, Sittagong Hill Tracts, Manipur and Assam. They are Tibet-Burma race. Chakma has it own written language and speaking language. Their language was tainted after Brtitish Colony took away from Burma in first Anglo-Burmese war in 1826.
Before first Anglo Burmese war, Burmese army was successfully defeated British East India Colony troops at Assam, Manipura and Sittagong Hill Tracts. Burmese Great General Maha Bandoola and his army can be defeated British East India Company and it army at Kolkata but Burmese army stop at Panwa (Yellow Flower meaning in Burmese) (now Bengali name Ramu).
Chakma and some of the ethnics their culture were becoming mixing Indian Culture because British East India Company ruled Sittagong Hill Tracts direct from their Head Quarter from Kolkata, India.
After first Anglo Burmese War in 1824-1826, Burma had gave control over Rakhine (Sittagong Hill Tracts was part of Rakhine), Lower Burma, Manipura and Assam to British East India Colony Government.
Sittagong Hill Tracts, Assam and Manipur were stay under British Colony Government from India.
In that situation, most ethnics in those regions lost their Language, Culture, Religion and History.
I found very hard to believe the peoples in Sittagong Hill Tracts, Manipura and Assam do not know their history. Chakma and Kuki (Chin) have similar traditional. Assam and Manipura is Chin (Kuki) Land. Sittagong Hill Tracts is part of Rakhine. Sittagong (Chittagong) was not built by Muslim but it was built by Buddhist peoples. Earliest history, Bengal region was ruled by Buddhist Rakhine King and ethnics from Tibet were living in Sittagon region.
In history, Chakma peoples are braved and excellent soldiers. Also they are educated and took high rank official position in Bagan King Palace.
British Colony Government had failed to return Sittagong Hill Tracts, Manipura and Assam to Burma once British left Burma and India. However, British Colony rewarded these region to Pakistan and India for their loyal service for British Empire. Burmese peoples were rebellion against British Colony Government started from day one British Colony took over whole Burma. So British Colony Government see Burma as trouble maker in it empire. It's true.
I read history Chakma peoples want live under Indian rule and Marma peoples want to live with Burma.
History can not be going back and amended but I'm very sad to see our descendents are living under Muslim Government and they were facing genocide and ethnic cleansing crimes committed by illegal Bengali settlers and Bangladeshi Government.
Chakma, Marma and Kuki ethnic from Sittagong Hill Tracts must be start revolting against Bangladeshi Government and get freedom. Otherwise, Chakma and other ethnics history in Sittagong will be found in history book. Sittagong Hill Tracts Jumma tribal peoples can demand independent via UN and also Arms Revolution against Bangladeshi Government.
Don't for get you're not Bangladeshi. You have own kingdom, own religion, own language and own culture. To survive Chakma language, religion and culture to another century is duty for all Chakma peoples.
37
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Jan 28, 2013 @ 5:05 am
This article is very important for the other tribes who do not know about the Chakmas as well as for our chakmas brother and sister who are still blind about the Chakma community.I heartful thanks to the Author for his great deed.


LONG LIVE CHAKMAS
38
swagatam chakma
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Feb 26, 2013 @ 3:03 am
For the general introductory information about chakma tribes its ok but let me code a point from your article; about the language, the chakma is itself a language not a dailect of bengali. For your kind information, the case of chakma language is a case of Language shift from tibeto - burman family to Indo- aryan language family due to some social factors. Kindly refer to Grierson's " linguistics Survey of India" and S.P. Talukdhar's " the chakmas: Life and struggle". you will get more knowledge on chakma language.
39
Rajinda Bikkhu
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Apr 7, 2013 @ 2:02 am
I am a student of Pali Academy in Arakan of Myanmar. On reading article about Chakma in this Website, I 'm very happy so I welcome all Chakma people.
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Suman Chakma
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May 14, 2013 @ 11:23 pm
Good initiative. This is good for answering first line information about the Chakma community. However, you need to update the information time to time in order to provide sufficient datas regarding the Chakmas. This would provide ample help to the researchers, professors, etc...Keep up the good job you are doing...
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Nov 30, 2013 @ 9:21 pm
I am govt employ, thank you so much for writing about CHAKMAS please do write more about CHAKMA HISTORY
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Feb 11, 2014 @ 10:22 pm
I am a student of M.Sc(DFSM)in Tripura University. On reading article about Chakma in this Website, I 'm very happy so I welcome all Chakma people.
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Mar 13, 2014 @ 10:10 am
Yes,Chakma people are peaceful minded .But chakma people in Myanmar are struggling to get proper jobs.
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Gary
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Jul 30, 2014 @ 12:12 pm
My brother is getting married to a Burmese female with a Mizo ethnic group. I would like to know some gift ideas for their wedding.
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Bipin Roshan Babhura
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Aug 26, 2014 @ 3:03 am
I m xtremly proud n glad about our chakma tribes, we do hard work n we live peacefully n want to be live peacefully with others, unfortunately the chakma of arunachal pradesh,india is getting torture n dominated by the local peoples. We yet not got right of citizen in india. We r trying to our achieve our movement strugle as soon as possible.
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vikas singh
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Nov 19, 2014 @ 3:15 pm
I M REALLY HAPPY TO GATHER THE INFORMATION FROM HERE ON CHAKMA AND WISH THAT THEY DO SUCCEED IN WHAT THEY WANT.MOST IMPORTANT MY BEST FRIEND IS AND WILL ALWAYS BE CHAKMA.
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Rohit chakma
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Jan 15, 2015 @ 1:13 pm
After reading this valuable article about Chakma Tribe I am very happy. Thanks to the author.
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Mo Ahmed
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Jan 18, 2015 @ 2:02 am
Wonderful and informative article. Want to know more about the mythology, history and the culture of Chakma. Having lived in Peru, Ecuador, Brazil, Colombia and USA I understand how "assimilation" works - the history, culture, language and the way of life is diluted until it becomes a "Disneyland" version of people and their way of life becomes an "entertainment piece".
One way to survove is to adopt "community ecotourism" - build a "national park" on the river valleys, build small ecolodges, promote responsible ecotourism, create economic opportunities, jobs and means of communicating to the outside world. That is the way to survive and nurture the culture, heritage and the patrimony of the land of the hill tribes of Bangladesh. Mo Ahmed/California USA
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Tapan K Sarma
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Jan 29, 2015 @ 3:03 am
Chakma language is not a dilect of bengali. It is independent language.
Pl do the neccessary correction.
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Feb 1, 2015 @ 12:12 pm
being a chakma girl i was really unaware of my own community history.. knowing more about the origin history of chakma's is like wow!
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devasish chakma
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Apr 17, 2015 @ 11:23 pm
im so thanks that for giving this chakma imformation
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Arun Chakma
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Sep 5, 2015 @ 2:02 am
Iam really glad that the article given here has made me know more about our chakmas but we must also know that we chakmas have our own language and alphabets and don't speak Bengali language.
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Ravindra Chakma
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Jan 5, 2016 @ 8:08 am
I AM HAPPY ON YOUR EFFORT TO BRING THE VIEW OF CHAKMAS AMONG ALL. THIS IS A VERY GREAT JOB YOU DID BUT I THINK THAT THERE SHOULD BE SOME MORE DETAILS ABOUT THE CHAKMAS LIVING IN ARUNACHAL,TRIPURA AND MIZORAM ,ETC SUCH AS (FESTIVAL,SOME LEADERS,ETC). I WISH THAT YOU MAY DO BETTER AND CHAKMAS MAY ACHIEVE THEIR GOAL.
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May 10, 2016 @ 2:14 pm
I expect that the chakmas people wishes lord of god in the society and intellectual very should first growing .and i showing most of the chakmas they don't know about the education in this present life and we are never success in this world.so one thing i want to says that those who have more property they did not like study and ideal roam
and do not study proper managnent,they don"t think about his future and how to develop in the society.and we have must do big meeting anywhere and every students
youthfull those who have good knowledge and please explain him and every future life.
thanks
nongtaw chakma
arunachal pradesh
diyun muddhakka nala
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Simon Sakhohosa(Chakma)
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Jun 11, 2016 @ 11:23 pm
I am very very happy to know about the Chakma History . I was very much curious to know about our history. When i see around the world, i see almost all the tribal people have their own homeland permanently. But when i see and study about Chakmas particularly, we dont have permanent homeland but as a Chakma i really feel pain and burning my heart seeing the poverty and suffering that Chakmas going through. We could not rea ch the other tribal standard like Naga 's, is because we (Chakma ) shift and migrate from one place to another. We must live in one place and settle permanently. No matter what we face, we must fight for our birth Right and Liberty coz God created us (Chakmas) with a special Right and Liberty live on and have possession. Let us stand togather and unit our heart to make a better Chakma' Nation under thw sologan " Freedom is my Birth Right and getting it is my Freedom". Long live Chakma's Nation
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dilruba yasmin
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Oct 3, 2017 @ 2:02 am
Chakmas are originally from the arakan yoma region. Then, how can they claim to be the indigenous people of Bangladesh? The Santals (austaloids) can only claim to be the indigenous people of Bangladesh.
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Dec 3, 2017 @ 5:05 am
I really like thiss this help me very much i know very much about chakma so much actually this is too good thanks
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Jasper Kayina
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Jul 25, 2018 @ 10:10 am
My name is Jasper, from North-East India. I'm writing a thesis on Identity of the Jumma tribes in CHT, Bangladesh fro Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi. I will be very grateful if anybody could help me find out the latest population figure of the various tribes in CHT, Bangladesh. Thank you.
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Supriya Chakma
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Jan 11, 2019 @ 4:04 am
Chakma's dont use bengali dialect as their language. they have their own separate language and also their own script. This is totally wrong information. I hope they will rectify it after knowing proper details and information.
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Quader
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Jan 24, 2019 @ 10:22 pm
i recently found out i am from chakma tribe and after reading this i have found out many things i did not know about th e chakma people
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Nick
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Feb 9, 2019 @ 8:08 am
Sorry to say, but we CHAKMA people have our own language and therefore we do not speak BANGLA or use the BENGALI DIALECT .AND we do have our own script which is nowhere similar to the BENGALI ALPHABETS. I didn't read the whole article as I found flaws on the start , it definitely discouraged me to go through it further . As I far as I read ,I found the points to be true, but some filled with wrong information just as I mentioned . I definitely appreciate your work but there's correction to be made through further research and not by meresay .

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