ETHNONYMS: G I wi, G I I ana, Hai I I om, Kxoe (Makwengo), Nharo (Naro); !Koõ (!Xoõ); !Xu; Zhu I õasi (!Kung)
Barnard, Alan (1991). Hunters and Herders: A Comparative Ethnography of the Khoisan Peoples. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Denbow, James (1984). "Prehistoric Herders and Foragers of the Kalahari: The Evidence for 1500 Years of Interaction." In Past and Present in Hunter Gatherer Studies, edited by Carmel Schrire, 175-193. Orlando, Fla.: Academic Press.
Lee, Richard (1979). The !Kung San: Men, Women, and Work in a Foraging Society. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Silberbauer, George (1981). Hunter and Habitat in the Central Kalaharì Desert. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Vossen, Rainer, and Klaus Keuthmann, eds. (1986). Contemporary Studies on Khoisan: In Honor of Oswin Köhler on the Occasion of his 75th Birthday. Hamburg: Helmut Buske.
Wilmsen, Edwin (1989). Land Filled with Flies: A Political Economy of the Kalahan. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Wilmsen, Edwin, and James Denbow (1990). "Almost Outcasts: Paradigmatic History of San-Speaking Peoples and Current Attempts at Reconstruction." Current Anthropology 31:489-524.
EDWIN N. WILMSEN