Mountain Jews

ETHNONYMS: Self-designations: G'ivri, Isroil', Zhch'uch'ur; Dagchifut

Sociopolitical Organization

To keep the working mass of Mountain Jews obedient, the bourgeoisie and merchants were active in philanthropy—they built synagogues and opened Jewish religious schools. Their rabbis emerged not only as guardians of the faith but as judges who strictly controlled everyday life in the quarters (or ghettos, magaly ) in which the Mountain Jews lived, isolated from the surrounding population.


Anisimov, I. Sh. (1888). Kavkazskie evrei-gortsy (Caucasian Jewish mountaineers). Moscow.

Chernyj, I. (1880). "Gorskie evrei" (Mountain Jews). Sbornik Svedenii o Kavkazskikh Gortsakh (Tbilisi) 3.

Garkavi, A. Ja. (1874). Skazaniia evreiskikh pisatelei o khazarskom tsarstve (Accounts by Jewish writers of the Khazar empire). St. Petersburg.

Ikhilov, M. M. (1960). "Gorskie evrei" (Mountain Jews). In Narody Kavkaza (The peoples of the Caucasus), edited by M. O. Kosven, et al. Vol. 1, 554-561. Moscow: Akademiia Nauk.

Kokovtsev, P. K.(1932). Evreisko-khazarskaia perepiska v X v. . (Jewish-Khazar correspondence in the 10th century). Leningrad.

Kurdov, K. M. (1907). Gorskie evrei Dagestana (Mountain Jews of Daghestan). Moscow.

Vaisenberg, S. (1913). "Istoricheskie gnezda Kavkaza i Kryma" (The historical nests of the Caucasus and the Crimea). Evreiskaia Starina (St. Petersburg) 6.

M. M. IKHILOV (Translated by Paul Friedrich and David Testen)

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